Brazil: Logística reversa: 8 anos de vigência da Política Nacional de Resíduos Sólidos

Last Updated: 18 May 2018
Article by Ana Luci Grizzi
Most Read Contributor in Brazil, October 2018

Desde a publicação da Política Nacional de Resíduos Sólidos e seu decreto regulamentador em 2010 ("PNRS"), muitas são as discussões sobre o cabimento ou a viabilidade econômico-financeira da logística reversa (devolução, coleta, transporte, segregação e destinação ambiental adequada de determinados resíduos ou suas embalagens por setores diversos).

Se, por um lado, a logística reversa não era novidade para os setores de pneus, pilhas e baterias, óleos lubrificantes usados e embalagens usadas de agrotóxicos – por serem objeto de normativos específicos há muito, para os setores de embalagens vazias em geral (especialmente de alimentos e bebidas), eletroeletrônico, lâmpadas (de vapor de sódio e mercúrio e de luz mista) e farmacêutico, foram imensa novidade.

E como toda novidade, ao demandar investimentos relevantes para atualização da forma de gestão dos produtos colocados no mercado, se tornou fonte de preocupação e questionamentos. Foram muitas as rodadas de discussão dos diversos setores com o Ministério do Meio Ambiente, além de discussões com Secretarias Estaduais e Municipais de Meio Ambiente.

Após 8 anos de vigência da PNRS, o saldo ainda é limitado, principalmente pelo pequeno número de acordos setoriais assinados com o Governo Federal ou termos de compromisso assinados com os Governos Estaduais. Fato é que as empresas aderentes aos sistemas de logística reversa em vigor dedicaram tempo e investimento significativo, ao passo que muitos de seus concorrentes continuam apenas a observar e estão longe da conformidade ambiental nesse assunto.

Além disso, discussões existentes há 8 anos em alguns setores continuam sem resolução, a exemplo da classificação de periculosidade de resíduos eletroeletrônicos. É o velho dilema: celular em uso não é produto perigoso, mas no dia em que é trocado por um novo e perde sua utilidade, se tornaria resíduo 'perigoso'. Isso porque sua classificação estaria fundamentada em normativo técnico cuja última revisão data de 2004 e visa avaliar periculosidade de resíduos gerados em processos industriais.

Em paralelo a tais discussões, temos a atuação do Ministério Público: acordos setoriais ou termos de compromisso assinado têm sido objeto de fiscalização pelo MP. O resultado é a propositura de ações civis públicas e instauração de inquéritos civis ambientais que só abrangem ou classificam como réus as empresas que se dispuseram a cumprir a PNRS. Enquanto isso, os concorrentes não-signatários se beneficiam triplamente: têm vantagem econômica porque não fazem investimentos, não precisam contratar advogados para defendê-los e não sofrem sanções ambientais de qualquer natureza.

Visando corrigir esse cenário, em outubro de 2017 foi publicado o Decreto 9.177, mais conhecido como 'decreto da isonomia'. Esse normativo veio ao encontro dos longos e incansáveis pleitos das empresas aderentes aos sistemas de logística reversa: em tese, quaisquer fabricantes, importadores, distribuidores e comerciantes de produtos cujos resíduos/embalagens sejam objeto de logística reversa estão sujeitos às mesmas obrigações das empresas aderentes aos acordos setoriais ou termos de compromisso, mesmo que não tenham a eles aderido. Até este momento, no entanto, não foram identificados resultados concretos desse Decreto.

Em São Paulo, por sua vez, temos a recente publicação da Decisão de Diretoria 76 ("DD 76") da Companhia Ambiental do Estado de São Paulo (CETESB), condicionando a emissão de novas licenças ou renovação de licenças em vigor à comprovação de logística reversa. Apesar da aparente novidade, essa DD apenas deu efetividade a normativo em vigor desde 2015 mas, até então, ineficaz (Resolução SMA 45, art. 4º).

Como é usual na seara ambiental, São Paulo toma a dianteira. Sendo fato consumado, vale encarar este desafio como oportunidade: se por um lado essa obrigação só será exigida de empresas com operação em São Paulo e licenciadas pela CETESB, essas empresas ditarão as regras de eficiência dos sistemas de logística reversa, aquecerão o mercado de matérias-primas e insumos oriundos de materiais, partes e peças reutilizáveis, comprovarão ao mercado consumidor o valor de suas ações com a redução do volume de resíduos destinados aos aterros e o ganho ambiental daí advindo, pleitearão menores taxas de juros nos financiamentos e redução dos prêmios de seguro (haja vista o menor risco ambiental de sua operação).

Avaliando o cenário ambiental em 2018, do ponto de vista jurídico, é altamente recomendável que empresas com planejamento de longo prazo incluam a logística reversa em sua diretriz de conformidade ambiental.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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