Brazil: Aquisições e arrendamentos de imóveis rurais por estrangeiros

Negócios Imobiliários

O Instituto Nacional de Colonização e Reforma Agrária (INCRA) publicou, em 14 de dezembro de 2017, a Instrução Normativa INCRA nº 88, que trata do procedimento para solicitação de aprovação para aquisição de imóvel rural por estrangeiros no Brasil (IN INCRA nº 88/2017). Referida norma revogou e substituiu a Instrução Normativa INCRA nº 76/2013.

A IN nº 88 não alterou ou flexibilizou as restrições para aquisição ou arrendamento de imóveis rurais por estrangeiros atualmente em vigor, tampouco estabeleceu prazo máximo para que o INCRA conclua a análise dos pedidos de autorização. Contudo, trouxe alguns esclarecimentos sobre o regime de aprovação previsto na instrução anterior, incluindo os seguintes pontos (i) maior clareza sobre os requisitos, documentos e informações exigidos para obtenção de aprovação, (ii) reforçar o acompanhamento pelo INCRA das operações sobre os imóveis rurais por estrangeiros e (iii) instituir procedimento de regularização de operações realizadas em desacordo com a legislação. As principais alterações da IN INCRA nº 88/2017 estão sintetizadas a seguir. 

1. Possibilidade de Regularização.  A IN INCRA nº 88 trouxe um novo procedimento para regularização das aquisições e dos arrendamentos realizados em desconformidade com as restrições impostas pela Lei Federal nº 5.709/1971. Foi prevista a possibilidade de validação dos negócios em desconformidade mediante análise de "plausibilidade e juridicidade do pedido" pelo INCRA. São elegíveis ao pedido de regularização as transações ocorridas até a data da publicação da referida norma. Não foi estabelecido prazo específico para que tal pedido seja feito ao INCRA. 

2. Recurso. A IN INCRA nº 88/2017 prevê a possibilidade de o interessado interpor recurso administrativo em caso de indeferimento pelo INCRA de pedido de aprovação de aquisição ou arrendamento de imóvel rural. O texto prevê que o recurso deverá ser dirigido à Superintendência Regional, que poderá reconsiderar a decisão em até cinco dias. Caso contrário, o recurso deverá ser encaminhado ao Comitê de Decisão Regional, que terá 30 dias para decisão. Em caso de nova negativa, o interessado poderá ainda recorrer à Coordenação Geral de Cadastro Rural, que deverá julgar o caso em 30 dias. 

3. Do Ato Nulo. A instrução reafirma a condição de nulidade das operações feitas em desacordo com a Lei nº 5.709/1971,1 mas a norma passou a indicar algumas exceções. Dentre as exceções, o INCRA se preocupou em não anular os registros daqueles (i) terceiros adquirentes de boa-fé que tenham cumprido os requisitos da usucapião, (ii) estrangeiros posteriormente naturalizados e (iii) portugueses atualmente em situação de igualdade. Enquanto no primeiro caso a instrução remete ao fundamento na lei de registros públicos, nos demais casos apenas esclarece que as irregularidades não constarão no Sistema Nacional de Aquisição de Terras por Estrangeiros (SISNATE), que deve ser regulado por instrumento especifico.3

4. Acirramento do Procedimento de Verificação. A norma ressaltou a competência da Corregedoria Geral de Justiça do Tribunal de Justiça do Estado ou do Juízo de Direito da Comarca do imóvel rural para a decretação ou declaração, em processo administrativo ou judicial, respectivamente, da nulidade dos registros de aquisições ou arrendamentos de imóveis rurais por estrangeiro em desacordo com a lei. A IN INCRA nº 88/2017 esclarece que o INCRA vai requerer à CGJ a declaração de inexistência e o cancelamento da matrícula ou do registro respectivo nos casos que forem feitos em desacordo com as restrições, devendo comunicar também ao Ministério Público.4 Ainda sobre o melhor controle das aquisições ou arrendamentos registrados, a norma traz expressamente a responsabilização dos Oficiais de Registro de Imóveis, que agora estão obrigados a mencionar as autorizações do INCRA correspondentes, sob pena de incorrer nas responsabilidades civil e criminal, pelos danos e por falsidade ideológica, respectivamente.5

5. Definição de Controle. No texto da instrução foram incluídas as noções de participação majoritária e controle da Lei das S.A.,6 de acordo com o Parecer da AGU/2010, para firmar o conceito de pessoa jurídica brasileira equiparada à estrangeira como sendo aquela em que seus sócios estrangeiros detenham maioria de capital social, ou que sua participação acionária lhe(s) assegure o poder de conduzir as deliberações da assembleia, de eleger a maioria dos administradores, de dirigir as atividades sociais e orientar o funcionamento. Assim, a IN INCRA nº 88/2017 tenta esclarecer a definição da pessoa jurídica brasileira equiparada à estrangeira utilizando-se do conceito de controle da Lei das S.A., o que é questionável, dado que tal conceito não foi previsto na Lei nº 5.709/1971 (e nem poderia estar previsto, dado que a última norma é anterior à Lei das S.A.). A IN INCRA nº 88/2017 complementa ainda a possibilidade de as empresas brasileiras equiparadas às estrangeiras "cadastrarem ou recadastrarem" o seu imóvel rural no INCRA, sem nenhuma sanção, nos casos de aquisições ou arrendamentos feitos no período entre 07/06/1994 e 22/08/2010 que foram considerados aperfeiçoados pela portaria interministerial da AGU e do Ministério da Agricultura em 26/02/2014.7

Considerando o texto da norma, é cedo para saber se o INCRA investigará a fundo os livros auxiliares dos Ofícios de Registros de Imóveis8 ou atualizará o cadastro nacional de imóveis rurais, em especial, no âmbito da aquisição ou arrendamento por estrangeiros. Em paralelo, a nova norma cria, em tese, alternativa para regularização das aquisições e dos arrendamentos realizados em desconformidade com as restrições impostas pela Lei nº 5.709/1971, que, no entanto, é de resultado incerto, dada a falta de clareza sobre os critérios que serão utilizados pelo INCRA para realizar tal avaliação. 

Footnotes

1 Art. 15: A aquisição de imóvel rural, que viole as prescrições desta Lei, é nula de pleno direito. O tabelião que lavrar a escritura e o oficial de registro que a transcrever responderão civilmente pelos danos que causarem aos contratantes, sem prejuízo da responsabilidade criminal por prevaricação ou falsidade ideológica. O alienante está obrigado a restituir ao adquirente o preço do imóvel.

2 Lei Federal nº 6.015, de 31 de dezembro de 1973, art. 214, § 5º.

3 IN INCRA nº 82/2015, art. 15, parágrafo único.

4 IN INCRA nº 88/2017, art. 27.

5 IN INCRA nº 88/2017, art. 17, parágrafo único.

6 Lei Federal nº 6.404, de 15 de dezembro de 1976.

7 Portaria Interministerial AGU nº 4, de 25 de fevereiro de 2014, art. 1º.

8 Lei Federal No. 5.709/1971, Art. 10

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