Brazil: Reforma trabalhista provocou corrida à Justiça

Last Updated: 11 January 2018
Article by Veirano E Advogados Associados
Most Read Contributor in Brazil, September 2018

Uma corrida à Justiça marcou a semana anterior à entrada em vigor da reforma trabalhista. De acordo com dados compilados pela Associação Nacional dos Magistrados do Trabalho (Anamatra), pelo menos cinco tribunais do país receberam volume acima da média de processos entre os dias 1 e 10 de novembro — o texto passou a valer no dia 11. No Tribunal Regional do Trabalho (TRT) do Rio, 10.740 ações foram ajuizadas só no dia 10, quase a metade dos cerca de 23 mil que costumam ser registrados mensalmente.

Segundo especialistas, foi um movimento de advogados para tentar garantir que os casos sejam julgados com base nas regras antigas. A reforma estipula que, agora, a parte perdedora terá que pagar as custas do processo. Para alguns juízes do trabalho, esse trecho da lei só pode ser aplicado para processos ajuizados a partir do dia 11. Entrar com ação no dia 10 seria uma forma de evitar a cobrança em caso de derrota.

Além do Rio, Bahia, Goiás, Espírito Santo e Santa Catarina registraram alta no número de novos processos. Na Bahia, foram 6.223 só no dia 10, ou 62% de todo o movimento em setembro.

  • O número mostra que houve uma desova de ações. Os advogados propuseram tudo que puderam — explica Guilherme Feliciano, presidente da Anamatra, entidade crítica à reforma.

Advogados, no entanto, divergem sobre a estratégia. Uma regra do Direito prevê que questões relacionadas ao processo — como a cobrança de custas — devem seguir a legislação em vigor no dia da sentença. Para Valton Pessoa, sócio do Pessoa & Pessoa Advogados, a regra tem exceções, porque não pode ferir princípios de segurança jurídica:

  • As partes calculam o risco antes de entrar com a ação. Não se pode impor a alguém despesa que ela não havia previso.

Luiz Guilherme Migliora, sócio do Veirano, entende que a nova lei vale para processos novos e antigos. Ele destaca que esse foi o entendimento para a aplicação do novo Código de Processo Civil (CPC), em 2015.

  • Vários advogados resolveram ajuizar antes, com uma ideia errada de que as normas processuais não se aplicariam aos casos deles. É fruto de desinformação e do discurso de parte dos juízes — avalia Migliora.

Emendas aumentam incertezas

Ambos concordam que levará tempo até os tribunais chegarem a um consenso. No dia 11, primeiro dia com a reforma em vigor, um juiz de Ilhéus, na Bahia, determinou que um trabalhador pagasse os custos de um processo que perdeu. Na mesma semana, um juiz de Salvador deu sentença com entendimento contrário.

A indefinição sobre o entendimento dos tribunais é apenas um dos motivos de incerteza em relação à reforma trabalhista. As quase 900 emendas apresentadas pelos parlamentares no Congresso Nacional à medida provisória que altera pontos do texto amplificam essa sensação. No entanto, isso não impede que as companhias já passem a fazer contratações sob as novas regras, dizem especialistas.

Entre as emendas estão a volta dos sindicatos nos processos de homologação da saída de trabalhadores que ficaram por mais de um ano na empresa e novas formas de financiamento aos sindicatos.

  • Tudo que as empresas fizerem com base na nova lei ou na MP tem validade legal. Uma empresa que já quer planejar a escala de férias para o próximo ano com base na nova lei, por exemplo, pode fazê-lo. E espero que o Congresso examine as emendas com muito critério para não desfigurar a reforma — diz Helio Zylberstajn, professor do Departamento de Economia da Universidade de São Paulo (FEA-USP) e cofundador do Instituto Brasileiro de Relações de Emprego e Trabalho (Ibret).

O advogado Flavio Pires, sócio do setor trabalhista do Siqueira Castro, também vê garantia legal para contratar pelas novas regras. Mas diz que a palavra de ordem é cautela:

  • Acredito que sejam necessários dois ou três anos para a adaptação à nova lei, considerando que é um tema espinhoso.

Para Fabio Medeiros, advogado especialista em direito trabalhista do Lobo de Rizzo Advogados, o grau de incerteza aumentou com o recorde de emendas apresentadas pelos parlamentares, já que a condição política do governo é diferente de quando o texto original foi aprovado.

  • Na prática, algumas emendas podem ser aprovadas como moeda de troca, sem que sejam analisados o lado técnico e o impacto que trarão à sociedade — diz Medeiros.

Insegurança para contratar

O professor do Centro Preparatório Jurídico e especialista em Direito do Trabalho Fabio Rapp observa que a MP trouxe alguns ajustes necessários ao texto original da reforma, como no caso das trabalhadoras grávidas atuando em locais insalubres, mas acredita que ainda haverá muita intervenção do Executivo e do Judiciário, com crescimento do número de ações trabalhistas:

  • Tudo isso provoca insegurança para quem contrata. Todo mundo está acreditando que, com essa nova lei, não haverá mais questionamentos dos trabalhadores, mas nunca foi assim. Portanto, mesmo com essas alterações, não vejo como se possa fomentar o mercado de trabalho.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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