Brazil: Varejo começa a contratar pela nova lei trabalhista

Last Updated: 9 January 2018
Article by Veirano E Advogados Associados
Most Read Contributor in Brazil, September 2018

Este será um fim de ano diferente para os trabalhadores do comércio. Pela primeira vez, as grandes redes de lojas estão admitindo funcionários com contrato de trabalho intermitente, modalidade que foi criada pela nova lei trabalhista, em vigor há um mês. Esses empregados atuam apenas quando são convocados e o salário varia de acordo com o número de horas trabalhadas – o que permite, no caso do varejo, a contratação de profissionais para prestar serviços em datas especiais, com maior fluxo de clientes nas lojas ou em dias específicos.

O Magazine Luiza, gigante do varejo de móveis e eletrodomésticos, foi uma das primeiras redes a admitir trabalhadores intermitentes. Foram 1.750 contratações divididas entre as 830 lojas e os centros de distribuição. “Já usamos na Black Friday, vamos utilizar essa mão de obra na semana do Natal e na Liquidação Fantástica de janeiro”, conta Marcelo Silva, vicepresidente do Conselho de Administração da rede e vice-presidente do Instituto para o Desenvolvimento do Varejo (IDV). A rede tem 22 mil funcionários.

A Leroy Merlin, especializada em materiais de construção, é outra grande varejista que já aderiu ao trabalho em tempo parcial. “Começamos a contratar para reforçar o atendimento em finais de semana”, diz o presidente da empresa no Brasil, Alain Ryckeboer. Estudantes e pessoas idosas, por exemplo, são os perfis de candidatos a essas vagas, explica o executivo.

A Leroy Merlin não informa o número de contratações em período parcial feitas pela rede como um todo. O Estado apurou que só para a loja da Marginal Tietê, em São Paulo, reinaugurada na semana passada após uma ampliação, foram admitidas 52 pessoas nesse regime. O objetivo é reforçar o atendimento no fim de semana. A loja do Tietê emprega diretamente 360 pessoas em regime permanente.

Silva, do Magazine Luiza, explica que, na legislação trabalhista anterior, as empresas não tinham alternativa. Admitiam trabalhadores que eram subutilizados na semana por causa do movimento menor das lojas. E, nos finais de semana, quando a procura cresce, esses quadros eram insuficientes para atender ao cliente adequadamente.

Cautela. Apesar de a reforma trabalhista ter sido uma das grandes bandeiras do setor varejista, muitas empresas do comércio, no entanto, ainda avaliam a adoção das novas formas de contratação. “Estamos numa fase de adaptação de quadros, de sistemas e de como recrutar. É cedo para ver a efetividade da mudança, mas acreditamos que será efetiva, sim”, diz Silva, fazendo referências às varejistas associadas do IDV.

Os executivos da Petz, especializada em produtos e serviços para animais de estimação, no momento estão se reunindo internamente para avaliar como farão as admissões, de acordo com as novas regras. “Estamos tirando dúvidas iniciais sobre esse processo, tanto na questão do trabalho intermitente como na questão do contrato em tempo parcial”, diz Sergio Zimerman, presidente.

Para o início de 2018, ele calcula que deve contratar entre 200 e 300 pessoas, no mínimo, no regime intermitente e de jornada de trabalho parcial. “Em princípio, vamos admitir mais no regime de jornada parcial do que no intermitente”, diz.

A rede de supermercados Chocolândia é outra varejista que, neste momento, estuda a nova legislação para dar sinal verde às contratações a partir do mês que vem. Osvaldo Nunes, dono da empresa com dez lojas, pretende admitir 300 pessoas em jornada parcial, só para trabalhar aos domingos. Faz três anos que a varejista, que emprega quase mil pessoas, decidiu fechar as lojas aos domingos, que é o segundo melhor dia de vendas da semana. “Quando a economia estava aquecida, tínhamos dificuldade de manter os funcionários abrindo as lojas aos domingos”, lembra Nunes.

Regras. Pela nova lei, o trabalhador contratado em regime intermitente tem registro em carteira, direito a 13.º salário, férias proporcionais. Ele deve ser convocado três dias antes para o trabalho e pode recusar a convocação ao menos quatro vezes, avisando o empregador, já que ele pode ter outros contratos intermitentes, observa Luiz Guilherme Migliora, líder da área trabalhista da Veirano Advogados. A remuneração é por hora. O valor não pode ser inferior ao recebido por hora pelo contratado em regime permanente que exerça a mesma função.

Trabalhadores questionam contrato na Justiça

O contrato de trabalho intermitente é alvo de contestação na Justiça de duas entidades que representam os trabalhadores. A Federação Nacional dos Empregados em Postos de Serviços de Combustíveis e Derivados de Petróleo (Fenepospetro) entrou na semana passada com ação de inconstitucionalidade no Supremo Tribunal Federal questionando os dispositivos da reforma trabalhista que preveem o contrato de trabalho intermitente. Esse contrato já havia sido contestado pela Confederação dos Trabalhadores de Segurança Privada. A Fenepospetro considera que “o contrato intermitente propicia a precarização da relação de emprego, servindo inclusive de desculpa para o pagamento de salários inferiores ao mínimo constitucionalmente assegurado e que não atendem às necessidades básicas do trabalhador e de sua família, no tocante à moradia, alimentação, educação, saúde e lazer”.

Para a entidade, o contrato de trabalho intermitente “viola os princípios da dignidade da pessoa humana e da isonomia”, e “desrespeita os incisos XIII e XVI do artigo 7.º da Constituição, que tratam da duração da jornada de trabalho e da remuneração do serviço extraordinário”. O caso está sob relatoria do ministro Edson Fachin.

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