Brazil: A Reforma Legal Do Setor Mineral

Em cerimônia realizada em 25/7/2017 no Palácio do Planalto, o Presidente Michel Temer editou três Medidas Provisórias que representam a reforma legal do setor mineral:

  • a primeira delas (MP 789) alterou a forma de cálculo  e alíquotas da Compensação Financeira pela Exploração de Recursos Minerais – CFEM;
  • a segunda Medida Provisória (MP 790) reformou cerca de 30 dispositivos do Código de Mineração (Decreto-lei 227/1967), com o intuito de modernizá-lo e corrigir inconsistências regulatórias;; e
  • a terceira (MP 791) criou a Agência Nacional de Mineração – ANM, que deverá substituir o Departamento Nacional de Produção Mineral – DNPM. 

A reforma da CFEM infelizmente não caminhou no sentido de estimular o setor mineral. O alargamento da base de cálculo – que passa a ser o faturamento bruto, desconsiderando deduções lógicas e que nada têm a ver com a lavra, como o transporte externo da mina, os seguros e os tributos incidentes sobre a venda – e o aumento de várias alíquotas de substâncias minerais, além de profundas alterações na base de cálculo da CFEM sobre o consumo, mais do que dobrará a carga que a CFEM representa para mineradores. 

Como se não bastasse, ainda foi criada uma "taxa de fiscalização" com o nítido propósito arrecadatório, aparentemente com o propósito de viabilizar a Agência. No entanto, o fato é que a Agência já estaria viabilizada se a quota-parte da CFEM que lhe cabe não fosse contingenciada, como nos últimos anos, e realmente atingisse o destinatário final que era o DNPM. Em vez de resolver a questão do contingenciamento, o Governo optou por onerar ainda mais o setor produtivo com a taxa de fiscalização – além de mais do que dobrar a CFEM – o que representa uma medida que pode ter o efeito contrário à intenção anunciada, que era de modernizar o setor mineral e atrair investimentos. 

A reforma do Código de Mineração, em sua maior parte, teve por objetivo atualizá-lo – a última alteração relevante havia acontecido há pouco mais de 20 anos, em 1996 – e eliminar ou ajustar dispositivos que representavam obstáculos para o desenvolvimento de empreendimentos e para a adequada fiscalização por parte do Estado. 

Merecem destaque as seguintes alterações: 

  • a adequação dos sistemas de se reportar recursos e reservas às práticas internacionais;
  • a possibilidade de prosseguimento da pesquisa mineral após a apresentação do relatório final de pesquisa, o que é uma medida salutar, visto que o cenário até então vigente criava uma lacuna entre a pesquisa e a lavra;
  • o aumento do prazo para pesquisa, que se ajusta às demandas da realidade exploratória;
  • prorrogações sucessivas da autorização de pesquisa em casos de impedimento de acesso à área a ser pesquisada, bem como a demora no licenciamento ambiental
  • a eliminação da possibilidade de uma área vinculada a um direito minerário tornar-se livre pela não apresentação de relatório final de pesquisa, o que finalmente acaba com a chamada prática da "fila";
  • a criação de novas sanções como a interdição, bem como novas hipóteses de caducidade e valores mais elevados para multas, buscando dotar o Estado de instrumentos legais fiscalizatórios, desde que aplicados com razoabilidade
  • o estabelecimento do prazo de 20 anos para a validade do licenciamento para o aproveitamento de agregados, assim como a transferência da competência da outorga do título de licenciamento do município para a União;
  • a utilização de leilão eletrônico, com critério de maior preço, como método de outorga de títulos sobre áreas desoneradas
  • a inclusão no Código de diretrizes para o fechamento de mina, o que até então era tratado apenas em nível infralegal e representa um elemento essencial para a sustentabilidade do setor mineral. 

A inciativa de atualização do Código de Mineração traz várias proposições muito benéficas ao setor. No entanto, ter-se perdido a oportunidade, ao menos em um primeiro momento, de propor avanços em questões importantes, como medidas a facilitar o financiamento da mineração, mecanismos de regulação do acesso à áreas públicas e privadas para a realização de pesquisa e lavra, dar ao direito minerário a natureza de direito real, atualizar o registro mineral, dentre outros. 

Por fim, a criação da ANM, que substituirá o DNPM, insere o setor mineral no modelo de administração que há duas décadas já vem sendo aplicado nos setores de petróleo, energia e telecomunicações. Objetivando modernizar a administração da mineração, a ANM será dotada de uma Diretoria colegiada, formada por cinco Diretores detentores de mandato fixo, o que espera-se diminuirá pressões políticas e trará maior independência. A prática experimentada em outras agências reguladoras segundo a qual as decisões são colegiadas, as propostas de alteração à regulação passam por consulta pública na qual a Agência deve considerar e expressamente se pronunciar sobre sugestões, e os procedimentos passam a contar com maior transparência poderão representar ganhos significativos para o setor desde que efetivamente implementados. 

O fundamental, contudo, é que a nova Agência não representa apenas uma mudança de nomenclatura, mas sim esteja dotada de recursos orçamentários para implementar o novo modelo administrativo e atingir os objetivos de uma agência reguladora. A criação de uma nova Agência sem que haja alterações significativas nos baixos orçamentos do DNPM não representará nada além de uma medida puramente estética.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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