Brazil: Vantagens Sociais E Estratégicas Do Uso Das Ferramentas De Propriedade Intelectual Para A Inovação

Last Updated: 4 May 2017
Article by Emma Luna

Albert Einstein dizia que "a mente que se abre a uma nova ideia jamais voltará ao seu tamanho original".  Analogamente uma sociedade, após experimentar e aprovar uma inovação, jamais desejará voltar – ou tornará a se acostumar - a viver sem a mesma.

A inovação é entendida como algo inédito que, após ser idealizado e desenvolvido, chega ao mercado consumidor tornando-se, portanto, acessível ao público em geral. Em assim sendo, trata-se de um produto ou processo de aplicação industrial que provém da habilidade criativa da mente humana, quando levada à busca pela solução de um problema técnico conhecido ou identificado.

Foi assim com o alemão Karl Benz que, frente à observação das dificuldades e demora dos deslocamentos humanos entre pontos distantes, desenvolveu um veículo de três rodas que foi o precursor dos veículos motorizados à combustão interna. Tempos mais tarde, o Norte-americano Henry Ford desenvolveu o modelo de quatro rodas batizado de Ford Model T que popularizou o automóvel, revolucionou a indústria automobilística mundial e, atualmente, facilita a vida de milhões de pessoas.

Outra inovação que beneficiou enormemente a vida do ser humano foi desenvolvida por Thomas Edison também no final do século XIX: trata-se da lâmpada elétrica incandescente – um artigo relativamente simples nos dias atuais, mas que causou (e ainda causa) enorme impacto em nossas vidas, conforme constata CIRIACO (2013)1.

A sociedade foi enormemente impactada, também, por outra inovação que atualmente se tornou praticamente um item de primeira necessidade: o telefone, criação do Escocês Alexander Graham Bell. Essa inovação "encurtou distâncias", facilitou enormemente a comunicação entre as pessoas e, além disso, foi a fonte inspiradora de uma pluralidade de outras tecnologias que tornaram a comunicação falada e visual, à distância e em tempo real, acessível e indispensável para o homem.

Há que se lembrar, porém, que não somente inovações envolvendo alto grau tecnológico trazem grande facilidade à vida diária, sendo que um exemplo disso é o recipiente para lavar arroz - invenção da brasileira Therezinha Zorowich. Alimentos, bebidas, medicamentos, utensílios, equipamentos e vários outros produtos consumidos em larga escala atualmente também são resultado de processos inovativos ou são, eles mesmos, inovações que trazem inúmeros benefícios e praticidade às nossas vidas.

Um ponto em comum entre a maior parte dessas inovações é o uso do sistema de propriedade intelectual (PI) e, mais precisamente, das ferramentas de propriedade industrial – especialmente as patentes. Fazendo referência aos exemplos acima, Karl Benz depositou o pedido de patente para seu veículo de três rodas em 20/01/1886; Thomas Edison o fez para a lâmpada elétrica incandescente em 27/01/1880; Graham Bell patenteou o telefone em 1876 e a brasileira Therezinha Zorowich depositou o pedido de patente do lavador de arroz em 1959.

A realidade é que muito se fala sobre inovação, mas a contrapartida não é verdadeira quando o assunto é PI. No entanto, é de suma importância compreender que a inovação relaciona-se diretamente aos ativos de PI – em especial as patentes, conforme observado nos exemplos citados - posto que, quando devidamente utilizados, são eles que podem proporcionar às mentes e/ou instituições criativas (i) o justo reconhecimento de autoria e/ou titularidade dos frutos de seu esforço intelectual, (ii) a possibilidade de obtenção do merecido retorno financeiro dos investimentos dispendidos nas atividades intelectuais e produtivas que levaram à inovação, e (iii) a motivação para a continuidade das pesquisas que podem levar a novas inovações.

Portanto, o uso estratégico das ferramentas de proteção da PI e, mais especificamente, de propriedade industrial – que engloba patentes, desenhos industriais, marcas, indicações geográficas e repressão à concorrência desleal – proporciona aos criadores e/ou titulares a possibilidade de impedir terceiros de, sem seu consentimento, produzir, usar, colocar à venda, vender ou importar o objeto da proteção conferindo-lhes, assim, um tempo pré-determinado de exclusividade durante o qual se viabiliza a possibilidade de retorno dos investimentos  dispendidos e, em função disso, se obtém uma motivação adicional para fazer com que as mentes criativas continuem a buscar soluções para problemas diversos. Fazendo referência aos exemplos citados no início do presente artigo, vale observar que Henry Ford depositou cerca de 161 patentes nos Estados Unidos, e Thomas Edison também teve uma atuação patentária muito expressiva no que diz respeito a questões envolvendo luz elétrica, que o levaram a depositar cerca de 424 patentes sobre o tema – sendo que, no total, Edison patenteou ao todo 1093 invenções de diversos processos e equipamentos para tecnologias correlatas2.

Além disso, é possível afirmar que a sociedade é duplamente beneficiada pelo sistema de patentes, pois o mesmo não somente estimula as mentes geniais a desenvolver e fazer chegar às suas mãos novos produtos e processos inovadores que acabam por tornar suas vidas mais simples e prática, como também lhes deixa o legado da revelação completa da invenção possibilitando, assim, que qualquer pessoa com conhecimentos medianos na referida tecnologia possa, após o término da vigência da patente, reproduzir na íntegra o conteúdo do documento patentário e, portanto, usufruir livremente do conhecimento ali revelado.

Para os inventores o uso do sistema de PI também é extremamente benéfico e, principalmente, estratégico pois além das vantagens já citadas (em especial, cite-se a possibilidade de retorno dos investimentos), ainda confere ao inovador um status que pode lhe dar uma grande vantagem competitiva posto que, lembrando Steve Jobs: "a inovação é o que distingue um líder de um seguidor"!

 Footnotes

1. CIRIACO, Douglas. 10 invenções de Thomas Edison que ainda utilizamos hoje. TecMundo, 06/11/2013. Disponível em < https://www.tecmundo.com.br/invencao/46323-10-invencoes-de-thomas-edison-que-ainda-utilizamos-hoje.htm >. Acesso em 23/04/2017.

2. Segundo informações do sítio Library of Congress do governo dos Estados Unidos da América. Disponível em < https://www.loc.gov/collections/edison-company-motion-pictures-and-sound-recordings/about-this-collection/ >. Acesso em 24/04/2017.


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