Brazil: Legislação E Regulação: Uma Reaproximação Necessária

Last Updated: 7 April 2017
Article by Felipe De Paula

A (falta de) qualidade da legislação é tema de menção recorrente, porém pouco trabalhado, na literatura jurídica brasileira. Embora seja importante definir parâmetros frente aos quais se verifica a qualidade de um ato normativo, é razoável afirmar que a produção legislativa brasileira pode – e deve – ser repensada e incrementada. Uma nova política legislativa pode ser construída com a mobilização de diferentes ferramentas e mecanismos. O debate sobre produção regulatória, no Brasil e no exterior, pode auxiliar nesse processo.

Embora de uso frequente, o conceito de regulação não é tão claro como à primeira vista se supõe. Recente estudo de Koop & Lodge (2015), baseado nos artigos mais citados nas ciências sociais desde a década de 70, mostra que definições explícitas são raras e que o grau de abstração conceitual é alto1. Embora existam elementos comuns, o fato é que a doutrina convive com os mais diversos conceitos, de maior ou menor amplitude, que mobilizam diferentes componentes.

Sob perspectiva jurídica, em que a regulação é entendida como o estabelecimento de normas com vistas a direcionar comportamentos (standard setting), o cenário brasileiro enfrenta complicador adicional. A explosão do tema em meados da década de 90, durante os processos de reforma administrativa, criação das agências e privatizações, restringiu a amplitude do debate. Uma identificação – talvez não intencional – entre a ideia de regulação e o desenho jurídico-institucional das agências limitou o debate a setores regulados. "Trabalhar com regulação", no jargão dos advogados, equivale a discutir a produção normativa de agências (ou congêneres) e os limites de sua competência, a compreender suas atividades e a relacionar-se com seus agentes específicos.

O problema soa meramente terminológico. Não é. Na prática, a restrição temática gerou efeitos perversos sobre a política legislativa, em geral, e a técnica legislativa, em específico. Para muitos, ferramentas, instrumentos e mecanismos contemporâneos discutidos em sede de "agenda regulatória" parecem inadequados ou não-pertencentes ao debate legislativo mais amplo.

Enquanto o debate regulatório avança para discussões mais qualificadas, ainda que a passos lentos, o tema da produção legislativa ordinária segue preso a aspectos formais do ato normativo. Questões sobre a qualidade do texto propriamente dito ainda têm primazia sobre aspectos de diagnóstico, prognóstico e de mecânica legislativa, entendida aqui como o como fazer – decidir sobre a melhor opção interventiva para a produção de determinados resultados.

O debate sobre aspectos formais é, sim, importante. Simplificar a linguagem e ampliar a visibilidade de aspectos centrais de determinado texto normativo são tarefas relevantes2. Não obstante, questões relativas a (i) motivos determinantes, (ii) objetivos efetivos ou (iii) à mecânica de dada ação legislativa não chegam com peso ao processo legislativo ordinário.

Para além da ausência de avaliações a priori que guiem a produção legislativa (de onde partimos) e de avaliações a posteriori que mensurem o que de fato ocorreu (aonde chegamos), que merecem abordagem detalhada própria, é fato que a produção legislativa tradicional usualmente apresenta como resposta o mecanismo do comando e controle. A solução legislativa padrão ainda se baseia, em boa medida, em figura familiar ao direito: comportamentos induzidos mediante a proibição de condutas, reforçadas pelo estabelecimento de sanções, frequentemente penais.

A produção regulatória infralegal brasileira não é necessariamente arrojada, e há abordagens legislativas inovadoras. No entanto, a mobilização da caixa de ferramentas regulatória, que considera opções para além do comando e controle, ainda é pouco usual na produção legislativa ordinária. Ferramentas de publicização de informações, empurrõezinhos comportamentais (os chamados nudges) ou ajustes na arquitetura de escolhas que direcionem o comportamento individual, dentre outros exemplos, aparecem de forma meramente episódica e assistemática3.

É claro que diferentes alternativas regulatórias possuem indicações específicas e severas limitações. Também se sabe, e aqui reside ponto relevante, que há diferenças importantes entre a produção normativa infralegal, "regulatória em sentido estrito", e a produção legislativa ordinária. O processo legislativo amplo e democrático, em que centenas de diferentes atores podem emendar projetos de lei em diferentes momentos do processo legislativo, inviabiliza o uso corrente de algumas ferramentas. Avaliações prévias na modalidade análise de impacto regulatório, que utilizem instrumentos como avaliações de custo-benefício, custo-efetividade ou o standard-cost model, por exemplo, não são alternativas realistas no caso de emendas legislativas de última hora.

Ainda assim, parece promissor mobilizar a caixa de ferramentas regulatória à produção legislativa ordinária. Não para desprezar, sob uma ótica tecnocrática, o debate democrático, mas sim para ajudar a orientar a decisão legislativa. Destacar alternativas originalmente desconsideradas, evitar opções desastrosas, sublinhar trade offs, dar base empírica a escolhas.

É inequívoca a necessidade de uma nova política legislativa no Brasil. Seu desenvolvimento pode e deve se valer dos mais diversos instrumentos e experiências. A mudança passa, necessariamente, pela superação de frágeis dicotomias. Passa, também, pela reconciliação entre os debates sobre regulação e legislação.

influenciam decisões preservando a liberdade de escolha, e a arquitetura de escolhas, cf. SUNSTEIN, Cass. Simpler: the future of the government. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2013; THALER, Richard; SUNSTEIN, Cass. Nudge: improving decisions about health, wealth and happiness. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008. "A nudge (...) is any aspect of the choice architecture that alters people's behavior in a predictable way without forbidding any options or significantly changing their economic incentives" (THALER & SUNSTEIN 2008, p. 6).

Footnotes



1. KOOP, Christel; LODGE, Martin. What is regulation? An Interdisciplinary Analysis. Regulation & Governance, 2015. DOI:10.1111/rego.12094.

2. Para a necessidade de ampliar a visibilidade de elementos-chave de atos normativos, cf. SUNSTEIN, Cass. Simpler: the future of the government. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2013.

3. Para rol de alternativas regulatórias, cf. MORGAN, Bronwen; YEUNG, Karen. An Introduction to Law and Regulation. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2007. Para nudges, que podem ser conceituados como abordagens que

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