Brazil: Ya ha entrado en vigor la adhesión de Brasil a la Apostilla de la Convención de la Haya

Last Updated: 7 November 2016
Article by Patrícia Falcão

En 5 de octubre de 1961 se celebró en Haya, la Convención sobre la eliminación de la Exigencia de Legalización de los documentos públicos exteriores, conocida también como la Apostilla de la Convención de la Haya.

El 6 de julio de 2015 (casi 54 años más tarde), el Congreso Nacional aprobó la adhesión de Brasil a la Convención, mediante el Decreto Legislativo No. 148, que entró en vigor en la República Federativa de Brasil el 14 de agosto de 2016.  

La Apostilla de la Convención de la Haya tiene el objetivo de racionalizar y simplificar la legalización de documentos entre los países signatarios, permitiendo el reconocimiento de documentos brasileños en el extranjero y documentos extranjeros en Brasil a través de una única etiqueta denominada Rodney.  

En términos prácticos, la apostilla consiste en insertar en el documento, un sello o marca apostilado, certificando la autenticidad del documento público expedido en un país y requerido en otro. Así, sí reconocen la eficacia jurídica de los documentos entre los países miembros de la Convención, lo que elimina la necesidad de legalizar el documento en el Consulado Brasileño de los países miembros y, a su vez, permite a Brasil disfrute del mismo procedimiento, cuando reciba los documentos desde el extranjero, uno de los países miembros.  

En otras palabras, la única formalidad que puede exigirse para certificar la veracidad de la calidad y la autenticidad de la firma, será el sello o marca dada por la autoridad competente del país donde se origina el documento.

Debe señalarse que la formalidad de la Apostilla no  puede  ser necesaria si las leyes, reglamentos o costumbres que son válidas en el país donde se celebraba el acto, mover, simplificar o dispensar el acto de legalización. 

La adhesión a la Convención tiene como principales ventajas el movimiento más rápidamente que los documentos públicos entre los países miembros, la burocratización del sistema de certificación de documentos públicos, así como la reducción de costes, beneficiando, en el análisis final, el comercio internacional y la actividad de la gente de otras jurisdicciones que tienen efecto legal en Brasil. 

El documento permitirá que los documentos públicos emitidos en Brasil, son más fácilmente reconocidos legalmente en los países miembros de la Convención, siempre que sean correctamente apostilados por la autoridad competente. 

En Brasil, el Consejo Nacional de Justicia (CNJ) es el órgano encargado de coordinar y regular la aplicación del tratado a través de las autoridades competentes autorizados a hacer. 

Con la aplicación de la "apostilla", el acto de certificación de un documento elaborado por la autoridad competente, es suficiente para demostrar su carácter público, es decir, la autoridad que certifica que la firma o sello que figuren en el documento fue emitido por un funcionario público en el desempeño de sus funciones, sin que las autoridades del país de recepción del documento, puede requerir otra prueba de autenticidad en relación a la misma. Sin embargo, es necesario aclarar que este proceso es de igual valor a la legalización, es decir, la misma no certifica la validez del contenido del documento, pero su autenticidad. 

La Convención se aplica a los actos públicos elaborados y presentados en uno de los países miembros. Siendo que son considerados como actos públicos:

  1. los documentos que emanan de una autoridad o un funcionario sujeto a cualquier jurisdicción del país, incluidos los del Ministerio Público, un registrador de la ley o de un alguacil;
  2. documentos administrativos;
  3. las escrituras notariales;
  4. las declaraciones oficiales tales como indicaciones de registro, visados para una fecha determinada y el reconocimiento de la firma inserta en los actos de carácter privado.

El Convenio no se aplica a:

(i) Los documentos preparados por los agentes diplomáticos o consulares;

(ii) los documentos administrativos relacionados directamente con una operación comercial o de la oficina.
 

Los requisitos para la expedición de una Apostilla son los siguientes:

1. Un documento expedido o autorizado en un país signatario;

2. El documento se utilizará en un país miembro del Convenio;

3. El documento tiene carácter público, de conformidad con el artículo 1 de la Convención.
 

Cualquier persona que posea un documento público que desea certificar la autenticidad, podrá exigir la certificación de Rodney junto a una de las autoridades competentes que se pueden encontrar a través del siguiente sitio web:

http://www.cnj.jus.br/poder-judiciario/relacoes-internacionais/convencao-da-apostila-da-haia/cartorios-autorizados>
 

La aplicación de la "apostilla" significa un gran avance en la legalización de los documentos públicos emitidos en el extranjero, así como las emitidas en Brasil para la piscina, la cual, en términos generales, tiene más ventajas que desventajas; de modo que favorezca el intercambio comercial entre los Estados Miembros y multicultural, eliminando las barreras que impiden que los documentos de tránsito.


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