Australia: Government review of Defence Trade Controls Act 2012 highlights relevance to local inventors

The Australian Government has announced an independent review of the Defence Trade Controls Act 2012. Local inventors (and indeed, patent attorneys) may think "so what? Unless I'm looking to patent a weapon, how is this remotely relevant to me?" Well, if your invention falls into what's termed the "dual use" category – inventions having potential downstream military application (remembering it is the Government that decides this – not you, and not us), then please read on...

Review of the Defence Trade Controls Act 2012

The Government has announced the appointment of Dr Vivienne Thom AM to conduct an independent review of the Defence Trade Controls Act 2012 ("the DTC Act"), which will be guided by the Terms of Reference. The review is largely to determine if the DTC Act is meeting its purpose. Submissions are due by 31 May 2018.

Insofar as the DTC Act relates to locally-originating patent applications, Shelston IP has been fully compliant since the 2015 amendments (prescribing criminal sanctions for breaches) took effect. Our local clients have benefitted from such compliance on our part. On this basis, there's possibly not a great deal that our clients may wish to feed back to the Government by way of submission. However, the review does place this little-known piece of legislation squarely in the public eye and provides an opportunity to issue a reminder as to the scope and significance of the DTC Act.

The 2015 amendments – criminal sanctions for non-compliance

The Defence Trade Controls Amendment Act 2015 entered into Australian federal law on 16 May 2015. The (criminal) sanctions for non-compliance took effect from 2 April 2016. In regulating the extent to which one can communicate new technologies overseas – and in providing criminal sanctions for non-compliance, the legislation stands to impact significantly upon the day-to-day activities of Australian patent attorneys – and their clients.

The DTC Act regulates the overseas supply and publication of Defence and Strategic Goods List (DSGL) technologies and the brokering of DSGL goods and technology.

Shelston IP actually worked closely with the Defence Export Controls Office (DECO) throughout the 2015 public consultation process, and as a consequence, our internal systems are fully compliant with the restrictions imposed. In short, when dealing with Shelston IP, local clients can rest assured that we fully understand the situation and will have taken the necessary steps to minimise any risks to the parties involved.

Criminalising non-compliance

As patent attorneys, the communication and publication of "technology" is a staple of our everyday work. Often, such communications are sent offshore. Other times, we communicate new technology in the form of patent specifications to our local clients, who in turn, send these documents overseas. Depending on the nature of the "technology", the DTC Act stands to criminalise such activities.

Because the offence provisions for supplying and publishing DSGL technology and for brokering DSGL goods and technology took effect from 2 April 2016, individuals and organisations are required to seek permits for any otherwise-offending activities.

Why have export controls in the first place?

The DTC Act is a little-known document having significant, wide-reaching consequences. Australia's export control system aims to stop goods and technology that can be used in military applications from being transferred to individuals, states or groups of proliferation concern. As a member of various international export control regimes, Australia is part of a global effort to regulate the export of items of concern, many of which have potential terrorism or weapons of mass destruction applications.

Australia already regulates the physical export of certain military and dual-use items under Regulation 13E of the Customs (Prohibited Exports) Regulations 1958. However, the DTC Act is Australia's means of closing any gaps that have appeared in the interim (as required by the Wassenaar Arrangement, to which Australia is a signatory).

Accordingly, the DTC Act regulates three main activities:

  • The intangible supply (transmission by non-physical means, such as e-mail) of controlled technology from a person in Australia to a person outside of Australia;
  • Publishing controlled military technology; and
  • Brokering (akin to enabling another to communicate overseas) controlled military goods or technology.

How do I know if my technology is covered under the DTC Act?

The DTC Act applies to different stakeholders, depending on whether their activities involve military or "dual-use" items listed in the DSGL. The DSGL, accessible here, is a 350-page legislative instrument defining as "dual use" a broad range of otherwise fairly benign-sounding technologies. As such, potentially one could assume a technology was exempt on the basis that it had no immediately or apparent primary military end use. It is important to note that secondary or incidental military applications may suffice, hence the term "dual use" technologies.

International export control regimes are generally conscious of their impact upon people's day-to-day activities, and so the controls are designed to only capture what is considered necessary. For example, the DSGL lists computers that are specifically designed to operate below -45 °C or above 85 °C. The DTC Act controls only apply to the technology which is necessary for the computer to operate at these extreme temperatures. Technology that does not influence the computer's ability to function at these temperatures is not controlled. Using the above example, an Australian inventor who has created such technology for the primary purpose of, say, exploring the surface of Mars, would need to be acutely aware of the restrictions imposed by the DTC Act – as would his/her patent attorneys.

Non-compliance is a criminal offence

As mentioned, the offence provisions specified in the DTC Act came into force from 2 April 2016. Although the sanctions for non-compliance are criminal in nature, this should be tempered with the knowledge that being hit with the full extent of the sanctions (10 years' imprisonment) would require prosecutors to prove the requisite levels of intent, knowledge, recklessness and negligence. The operation of the Criminal Code Act 1995 means that a person who mistakenly supplies, publishes or brokers controlled technology contrary to the DTC Act after diligently following institutional compliance processes would be unlikely to be prosecuted, much less to the full extent of the law. The Code applies general principles of criminal responsibility to Commonwealth offences; in particular, the knowledge requirement is akin to having received fair warning.

If the goods or technology at issue are listed in the DSGL, a permit or approval may be required from DECO. The qualifier "may" is dependent upon:

  • The activity being undertaken ("supply", "brokering", or "publication"); and
  • Whether it is a military or a "dual-use" DSGL technology; and
  • Whether an exemption applies (such as "basic scientific research" or material that has been lawfully placed into the public domain).

As readers will appreciate, a simple "yes/no" answer as to whether a permit is likely to be required is necessarily dependent upon the unique circumstances that each scenario presents.

Patent-specific exemptions

As mentioned, a staple of our day-to-day activities as patent attorneys is the exchange of information relating to "technology". We communicate technology internally, domestically and internationally on a daily basis – and our clients do the same. It is useful, therefore, to understand the activities that will be exempted under the DSGL regulations.

Firstly, the "pre-publication" exemption amounts to recognition, on DECO's part, that they cannot regulate the publication of information. As such, the communication of information contained in a patent document that will later be published (e.g., a draft convention application or a draft PCT application) appears to fit comfortably within the definition of "pre-publication". On the other hand, provisional patent applications do not appear to fit within this category – and as such, another exemption must be invoked.

To this end, the "patent application exemption" covers activities "directly related to seeking a patent":

This exemption applies to the supply of DSGL technology where it is done for the purpose of "seeking a patent" in Australia or overseas. "Seeking a patent" includes lodging a patent application and the supply of DSGL technology to a person or organisation (e.g., a Patent Office, patent attorney, research collaborator or a patent review panel) that is directly associated with the lodging (or potential lodging) of a patent application, or as a result of the patent examination process.
Supply for a purpose that is not directly related to seeking a patent will require a permit (unless other exemptions apply). This includes supply of DSGL technology to a research collaborator located overseas before a decision is made to seek a patent. Once a provisional patent application is filed, any supplies of DSGL technology to further develop an invention prior to preparing/submitting a complete patent application will require a permit. Supplies of DSGL technology to locate investors and determine overseas markets (including forwarding a recently-filed provisional application) will require a permit.
The process of publishing a patent (or an unsuccessful application) into the public domain is covered by this exemption. Until such time as that information exists in the public domain, it is still controlled and would require a permit to be supplied if it is not for the purpose of "seeking a patent" and no other exemptions applied.

As such, DECO would appear to have intentionally extricated the acts of overseas communication for the purposes of preparing a patent application (exempt) and communication with a view to ancillary business activities such as seeking investor funding (not exempt).

We will keep abreast of any changes to, or unusual interpretations of this new exemption. As it is, it is clearly important to the manner in which we – and our clients go about our everyday professional activities.

Shelston IP's proactive approach to the DTC Act restrictions

At Shelston IP, being aware of the potential impact of the DTC Act, we closely monitored progress throughout the public consultation process (dating back to 2014). We have liaised with DECO on a regular basis and have developed an internal best practice guide. Adherence to such best practice will protect not only our interests, but also those of our clients. This, in turn, means that clients dealing in controlled or dual-use technologies can be assured that their interests are in safe hands.

Based on our experience and understanding, compliance with the DTC Act can be as easy as following a few simple rules. In some instances, a deeper consideration of the specific circumstances and legislative requirements will be necessary. Those concerned about their own internal procedures under the DTC Act are invited to make contact with their Shelston IP patent attorney.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

Shelston IP ranked one of Australia's leading Intellectual Property firms in 2015.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Authors
 
Some comments from our readers…
“The articles are extremely timely and highly applicable”
“I often find critical information not available elsewhere”
“As in-house counsel, Mondaq’s service is of great value”

Related Topics
 
Related Articles
 
Related Video
Up-coming Events Search
Tools
Print
Font Size:
Translation
Channels
Mondaq on Twitter
 
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
 
Email Address
Company Name
Password
Confirm Password
Position
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Accounting
 Anti-trust
 Commercial
 Compliance
 Consumer
 Criminal
 Employment
 Energy
 Environment
 Family
 Finance
 Government
 Healthcare
 Immigration
 Insolvency
 Insurance
 International
 IP
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Litigation
 Media & IT
 Privacy
 Real Estate
 Strategy
 Tax
 Technology
 Transport
 Wealth Mgt
Regions
Africa
Asia
Asia Pacific
Australasia
Canada
Caribbean
Europe
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
U.K.
United States
Worldwide Updates
Registration (you must scroll down to set your data preferences)

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including your content preferences, for three primary purposes (full details of Mondaq’s use of your personal data can be found in our Privacy and Cookies Notice):

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting to show content ("Content") relevant to your interests.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, news alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

Mondaq hopes that our registered users will support us in maintaining our free to view business model by consenting to our use of your personal data as described below.

Mondaq has a "free to view" business model. Our services are paid for by Contributors in exchange for Mondaq providing them with access to information about who accesses their content. Once personal data is transferred to our Contributors they become a data controller of this personal data. They use it to measure the response that their articles are receiving, as a form of market research. They may also use it to provide Mondaq users with information about their products and services.

Details of each Contributor to which your personal data will be transferred is clearly stated within the Content that you access. For full details of how this Contributor will use your personal data, you should review the Contributor’s own Privacy Notice.

Please indicate your preference below:

Yes, I am happy to support Mondaq in maintaining its free to view business model by agreeing to allow Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors whose Content I access
No, I do not want Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors

Also please let us know whether you are happy to receive communications promoting products and services offered by Mondaq:

Yes, I am happy to received promotional communications from Mondaq
No, please do not send me promotional communications from Mondaq
Terms & Conditions

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of www.mondaq.com

To Use Mondaq.com you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.

Disclaimer

The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.

General

Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions