Australia: Recent adverse action decisions prove favourable for employers

Two recent adverse action cases have produced narrower readings of the "General Protections" provisions of the Fair Work Act 2009 (Cth) (FW Act), representing favourable outcomes for employers. The decision of the Federal Magistrates' Court (now named the Federal Circuit Court) in Harrison v In Control Pty Ltd [2013] FMCA 149 concerned an employee making a complaint or inquiry to his or her employer, while in CFMEU v Bengalla Mining Pty Ltd [2013] FCA 267 the Federal Court found that the FW Act was not intended to restrict the authority of an employer to take disciplinary action.

Harrison v In Control Pty Ltd [2013] FMCA 149

Section 341(1)(c)(ii) of the FW Act provides that an employee has a "workplace right" if the employee "is able to make a complaint or inquiry... in relation to his or her employment". The Court held in Harrison v In Control that this requires an employee to have a substantive complaint or inquiry in relation to their employment that would engage the jurisdiction of a person or body with capacity under a workplace law to seek compliance. Complaints or inquiries directed to issues of management which do not directly concern the employee's employment will not give rise to a "workplace right".


Mr Harrison (the applicant) was employed by In Control Pty Ltd as a sales representative. Over time, Mr Harrison expressed strong disagreement with the director of the respondent company, Mr Woodward, about his manner and style of management.

Mr Harrison raised a number of issues about the direction of the business in a meeting on 24 March 2011 with Mr Woodward. Two days later, Mr Woodward terminated Mr Harrison's employment on the grounds that he had become impossible to work with and would not accept management decisions.


The applicant argued that the respondent, in terminating his employment two days after making complaints or inquiries in relation to his employment, had taken adverse action against him because he had exercised a workplace right to do so, pursuant to section 341(1)(c)(ii) of the FW Act.

The parties were in dispute over the following matters:

  • Whether the applicant's conduct at the material time was in respect of a "workplace right" or exercising a "workplace right"; and
  • Whether the adverse action (i.e. dismissal) was taken because the applicant was seeking to exercise a workplace right.


Burnett FM found that the requirement that an employee must be able to make a "complaint or inquiry in relation to his or her employment" must be read narrowly, otherwise it would be "so wide as to be almost meaningless." It was further concluded that an employee must have a statutory or contractual basis for their complaint or inquiry and the substance of the complaint or inquiry must be such that, if made to an external body, that body would have jurisdiction to investigate and seek compliance under the relevant workplace law or instrument.

His Honour held that the complaints made by the applicant at the meeting on 24 March 2011 were not complaints or inquiries that were capable of forming a "workplace right" for the purpose of the FW Act.

CFMEU v Bengalla Mining Pty Ltd [2013] FCA 267

In this case, the Federal Court found that a warning letter to a coal mineworker who took unauthorised leave to attend a union meeting did not amount to adverse action, as the disciplinary action was not taken for a prohibited reason.


During 2012, the mineworker employee, who was also a union member and office holder, made three applications for unpaid leave in order to attend union meetings. Pursuant to the employer's leave policy, unpaid leave 'may' be granted 'where an employee has used all of their relevant accrued leave.' Thus, on each occasion the employer refused to approve the employee's unpaid leave request on the basis that he had not exhausted his accrued leave.

After attending a union management meeting without approval for leave, the employee was issued with a written warning stating that any further unauthorised absence from work could result in the termination of his employment.


The union contended that the warning letter had been given for a prohibited reason, because of the employee's affiliation with the union, and that this constituted adverse action under the FW Act.


The Federal Court accepted the employer's evidence that the employee's union membership, his position as an officer of the union and the fact he was absent from work to attend a union management meeting did not at all influence its decision to take disciplinary action against the employee. As such, the employer had discharged its onus of proving that its warning letter had not been issued for a prohibited reason.

The Court observed that if the union's arguments had succeeded, no employer who took disciplinary action against an employee knowing them to be a union member or officer, or knowing the employee was engaging or intending to engage in industrial activity, could ever discharge the reverse onus. In this way, the union's argument was not materially different from that rejected by the High Court in the Barclay matter.

Lessons for employers concerning adverse action claims

These two decisions should provide a degree of comfort to employers concerned with the reach of the adverse action provisions of the FW Act.

The decision in Harrison v In Control debunks the view that any complaint by an employee will enshrine the employee with adverse action rights.

The decision in CFMEU v Bengalla Mining Company illustrates that the mere inference that an employer's decision to take disciplinary action against an employee could have involved prohibited reasons is not enough to overcome direct evidence to the contrary. Justice Katzmann held that, in the circumstances of the case, "In truth, what the union sought was preferential treatment."

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

Kemp Strang has received acknowledgements for the quality of our work in the most recent editions of Chambers & Partners, Best Lawyers and IFLR1000.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Nick Noonan
Some comments from our readers…
“The articles are extremely timely and highly applicable”
“I often find critical information not available elsewhere”
“As in-house counsel, Mondaq’s service is of great value”

Mondaq Advice Centre (MACs)
Related Video
Up-coming Events Search
Font Size:
Mondaq on Twitter
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
Email Address
Company Name
Confirm Password
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Media & IT
 Real Estate
 Wealth Mgt
Asia Pacific
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
United States
Worldwide Updates
Check to state you have read and
agree to our Terms and Conditions

Terms & Conditions and Privacy Statement (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd and as a user you are granted a non-exclusive, revocable license to access the Website under its terms and conditions of use. Your use of the Website constitutes your agreement to the following terms and conditions of use. Mondaq Ltd may terminate your use of the Website if you are in breach of these terms and conditions or if Mondaq Ltd decides to terminate your license of use for whatever reason.

Use of

You may use the Website but are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the content and articles available (the Content). You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these terms & conditions or with the prior written consent of Mondaq Ltd. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information about’s content, users or contributors in order to offer them any services or products which compete directly or indirectly with Mondaq Ltd’s services and products.


Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the documents and related graphics published on this server for any purpose. All such documents and related graphics are provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers hereby disclaim all warranties and conditions with regard to this information, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. In no event shall Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information available from this server.

The documents and related graphics published on this server could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically added to the information herein. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers may make improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described herein at any time.


Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including what sort of information you are interested in, for three primary purposes:

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, newsletter alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our information providers who provide information free for your use.

Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) do not sell or provide your details to third parties other than information providers. The reason we provide our information providers with this information is so that they can measure the response their articles are receiving and provide you with information about their products and services.

If you do not want us to provide your name and email address you may opt out by clicking here .

If you do not wish to receive any future announcements of products and services offered by Mondaq by clicking here .

Information Collection and Use

We require site users to register with Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to view the free information on the site. We also collect information from our users at several different points on the websites: this is so that we can customise the sites according to individual usage, provide 'session-aware' functionality, and ensure that content is acquired and developed appropriately. This gives us an overall picture of our user profiles, which in turn shows to our Editorial Contributors the type of person they are reaching by posting articles on Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) – meaning more free content for registered users.

We are only able to provide the material on the Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) site free to site visitors because we can pass on information about the pages that users are viewing and the personal information users provide to us (e.g. email addresses) to reputable contributing firms such as law firms who author those pages. We do not sell or rent information to anyone else other than the authors of those pages, who may change from time to time. Should you wish us not to disclose your details to any of these parties, please tick the box above or tick the box marked "Opt out of Registration Information Disclosure" on the Your Profile page. We and our author organisations may only contact you via email or other means if you allow us to do so. Users can opt out of contact when they register on the site, or send an email to with “no disclosure” in the subject heading

Mondaq News Alerts

In order to receive Mondaq News Alerts, users have to complete a separate registration form. This is a personalised service where users choose regions and topics of interest and we send it only to those users who have requested it. Users can stop receiving these Alerts by going to the Mondaq News Alerts page and deselecting all interest areas. In the same way users can amend their personal preferences to add or remove subject areas.


A cookie is a small text file written to a user’s hard drive that contains an identifying user number. The cookies do not contain any personal information about users. We use the cookie so users do not have to log in every time they use the service and the cookie will automatically expire if you do not visit the Mondaq website (or its affiliate sites) for 12 months. We also use the cookie to personalise a user's experience of the site (for example to show information specific to a user's region). As the Mondaq sites are fully personalised and cookies are essential to its core technology the site will function unpredictably with browsers that do not support cookies - or where cookies are disabled (in these circumstances we advise you to attempt to locate the information you require elsewhere on the web). However if you are concerned about the presence of a Mondaq cookie on your machine you can also choose to expire the cookie immediately (remove it) by selecting the 'Log Off' menu option as the last thing you do when you use the site.

Some of our business partners may use cookies on our site (for example, advertisers). However, we have no access to or control over these cookies and we are not aware of any at present that do so.

Log Files

We use IP addresses to analyse trends, administer the site, track movement, and gather broad demographic information for aggregate use. IP addresses are not linked to personally identifiable information.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that Mondaq (or its affiliate sites) are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of these third party sites. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this Web site.

Surveys & Contests

From time-to-time our site requests information from users via surveys or contests. Participation in these surveys or contests is completely voluntary and the user therefore has a choice whether or not to disclose any information requested. Information requested may include contact information (such as name and delivery address), and demographic information (such as postcode, age level). Contact information will be used to notify the winners and award prizes. Survey information will be used for purposes of monitoring or improving the functionality of the site.


If a user elects to use our referral service for informing a friend about our site, we ask them for the friend’s name and email address. Mondaq stores this information and may contact the friend to invite them to register with Mondaq, but they will not be contacted more than once. The friend may contact Mondaq to request the removal of this information from our database.


This website takes every reasonable precaution to protect our users’ information. When users submit sensitive information via the website, your information is protected using firewalls and other security technology. If you have any questions about the security at our website, you can send an email to

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user’s personally identifiable information changes (such as postcode), or if a user no longer desires our service, we will endeavour to provide a way to correct, update or remove that user’s personal data provided to us. This can usually be done at the “Your Profile” page or by sending an email to

Notification of Changes

If we decide to change our Terms & Conditions or Privacy Policy, we will post those changes on our site so our users are always aware of what information we collect, how we use it, and under what circumstances, if any, we disclose it. If at any point we decide to use personally identifiable information in a manner different from that stated at the time it was collected, we will notify users by way of an email. Users will have a choice as to whether or not we use their information in this different manner. We will use information in accordance with the privacy policy under which the information was collected.

How to contact Mondaq

You can contact us with comments or queries at

If for some reason you believe Mondaq Ltd. has not adhered to these principles, please notify us by e-mail at and we will use commercially reasonable efforts to determine and correct the problem promptly.