Australia: Carbon Farming Initiative – update on recent developments

Last Updated: 26 March 2013
Article by Elisa de Wit and Damon Jones


Since our last legal update the Carbon Farming Initiative (CFI) has continued to expand and develop. More methodologies have been approved, more projects have been registered and more Australian Carbon Credit Units (ACCUs) have been issued. This legal update provides a snapshot of these and other recent developments.

For an overview of the CFI, please refer to our previous legal updates which can be found here and the Carbon Market Institute publication "The Carbon Farming Initiative: A Guide for Business," co authored by Norton Rose Australia and RAMP Carbon.

The 2013 Federal Election

It has been announced that the Federal Election will occur on 14 September 2013. According to the Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (the Department), the announcement of the election will not have any impact on the development, assessment or approval of methodologies. These processes will continue as normal until the start of the caretaker period on 12 August 2013.1

Inevitably, Australia's approach to climate change will be a much debated topic in the lead up to the election. With polls conducted in The Australian on 26 February 2013 showing Coalition primary support at 48 per cent against only 32 per cent for Labor2, it is important to consider the outcome of the election on the future of the CFI.

Labor's continued support for the CFI is clear from the increasing number of methodologies that are being determined and the increasing number of projects that are being registered. However, the protection, and possible expansion, of the CFI also forms part of the Coalition's developing policy stance. Greg Hunt MP, Shadow Minister for Climate Action, Environment and Heritage has reiterated the Coalition's commitment to the CFI and a desire to speed up the process for approving projects. He has also noted that there is a "significant opportunity to adopt many of the internationally approved methodologies and translate them to an Australian context".3

Approved methodologies

Since our last legal update in mid-December 2012, a further six methodology determinations have been made:

  1. human induced regeneration of native forest: Carbon Credits (Carbon Farming Initiative) (Human Induced Regeneration of a Permanent Even-Aged Native Forest) Methodology Determination 2013;
  2. reforestation and afforestation: Carbon Credits (Carbon Farming Initiative) (Reforestation and Afforestation) Methodology Determination 2013;
  3. destruction of methane from piggeries using engineered biodigesters: Carbon Credits (Carbon Farming Initiative) (Destruction of Methane from Piggeries using Engineered Biodigesters) Methodology Determination 2013;
  4. diverting legacy waste to an alternative waste treatment facility: Carbon Credits (Carbon Farming Initiative) (Diversion of Legacy Waste to an Alternative Waste Treatment Facility) Methodology Determination 2013;
  5. capture and combustion of landfill gas – waste upgrade project: Carbon Credits (Carbon Farming Initiative) (Capture and Combustion of Methane in Landfill Gas from Legacy Waste: Upgrade Projects) Methodology Determination 2012; and
  6. destruction of methane generated from dairy manure in covered anaerobic ponds: Carbon Credits (Carbon Farming Initiative) (Destruction of Methane Generated from Dairy Manure in Covered Anaerobic Ponds) Methodology Determination 2012.

These six new methodology determinations are now ready for use by farmers, landowners and others in setting up projects under the CFI and generating ACCUs. There are now 11 methodology determinations in total under the CFI. For more details on any of the existing methodology determinations please contact a member of the Norton Rose Climate Change team.

Proposed methodologies

There are currently 13 methodology proposals that are at different stages of the approval process.

Two methodology proposals, 'quantifying carbon sequestration by permanent plantings of native mallee eucalypt species using the CFI reforestation modelling tool' and 'avoided emissions from diverting waste from landfill through a composting AWT technology', have been endorsed by the Domestic Offsets Integrity Committee (DOIC). Following this endorsement, the next stage in the process for approval is for the Minister for Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (the Minister) to decide whether to make a methodology determination, based on the methodology proposal that has been endorsed by the DOIC. It is only after the Minister makes a formal methodology determination that the methodology can be used for a CFI offsets project.

There are two methodology proposals that are currently still open for public comment. The proposed methodologies, 'reducing greenhouse gas emissions in milking cows through feeding dietary additives' and 'avoided emissions from diverting legacy waste from landfill through a mechanical processing and separation, and enclosed aerobic composting alternative waste treatment facility' are both open for public comment until 10 April 2013.

In relation to the remaining nine proposed methodologies, they are either in the preliminary stages of the process or the DOIC has requested more information from the applicant.

For an updated list, including information relating to the status of methodology proposals and information justifying the approval and/or rejection of a proposed methodology, please visit the methodology proposals web page on the Department's website.

Other methodology developments

In December 2012, the Department hosted a workshop to identify opportunities for biochar projects under the CFI.4 The workshop included various participants who discussed a range of issues in relation to biochar and how these may affect a methodology. The participants agreed to work towards a methodology for sequestering carbon by applying biochar to agricultural soils for submission to the DOIC during 2013.5

Updated Methodology Guidelines

In January, updated Guidelines for submitting CFI methodologies (the Guidelines) and an example template (the Template) were released by the Department.

The revised Guidelines provide applicants with information in relation to developing methodologies, submitting methodology proposals and preparing a methodology proposal for assessment by the DOIC. The DOIC assesses all proposed CFI methodology proposals against the requirements of the Carbon Credits (Carbon Farming Initiative) Act 2011(the Act) and advises the Minister on the endorsement of methodology proposals.

All methodology proposals submitted to the DOIC for assessment must now use the updated version of the Template.6

Projects and credits

Since our last legal update, the number of registered projects has increased substantially. The total number of registered offsets projects is now 47, including 31 landfill gas projects, 10 savanna burning projects, three piggery projects, two reforestation projects and one diversion of legacy waste from a landfill project.7

The number of ACCUs that have now been issued has increased to 393,451. This figure includes the issue of 45,341 Non-Kyoto ACCUs eligible to SITA-ResourceCo Alternative Fuels Pty Limited for abatement achieved by the use of the Avoided Emissions from Diverting Legacy Waste from Landfill for Process Engineered Fuel Manufacture Methodology at Wingfield in South Australia.8

It is important to note that there are two types of ACCUs that can be issued: Kyoto ACCUs and Non-Kyoto ACCUs. The Act allows for the issue of Kyoto ACCUs if the eligible offsets project is an emissions avoidance project with a reporting period ending on or before 30 June 2012 or the eligible offsets project is a sequestration project with a reporting period ending on or before 31 December 2012. All projects that have a reporting period which ends after these deadlines can only be issued with Non-Kyoto ACCUs. However, these Non-Kyoto ACCUs will be classified as either Non-Kyoto ACCUs eligible or Non-Kyoto ACCUs voluntary. Non-Kyoto ACCUs eligible are able to be surrendered under the CPM. Whereas, Non-Kyoto ACCUs voluntary are only able to be sold in the voluntary market and cannot be surrendered under the Carbon Pricing Mechanism (CPM).

It is anticipated that there may be an additional rush of ACCUs issued pre 15 June 2013, given that a proportion of ACCUs can be used for compliance by liable entities under the CPM and registered projects will want to have the ability to sell their ACCUs prior to this compliance date.

Australian Financial Services licence

ACCUs issued under the CFI qualify as financial products under the Corporations Act 2001. A farmer or land manager who commences a CFI project and sells the ACCUs generated from the project will not usually need an Australian Financial Services (AFS) licence. However, the position for advisers and project developers is less clear. For example, a CFI project activity that would require an AFS licence for an advisor or project developer would include that party acting as a market maker to buyers if they regularly state prices at which they are prepared to sell ACCUs.

For further information, and examples of when an AFS licence may be required please visit the Australian Securities & Investments Commission Carbon markets page9 or alternatively contact a member of the Norton Rose Climate Change team.

Indigenous Carbon Farming Fund

The Indigenous Carbon Farming Research and Development Fund, which forms part of the CFI, has begun to provide funding grants to support the development of low-cost methodologies. In the first round of funding, $2.7m in funding has been approved to support the development of new methodologies for the benefit of indigenous communities over the next five years.

Recipients of the first round of grants include CSIRO for the development of a savannah burning methodology for the Tiwi Islands.10

Carbon Farming Futures program - update

The Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF), administers various elements of the Carbon Farming Futures program (CFF), which includes the Filling the Research Gap, Action on the Ground and Extension and Outreach programs.

The deadline for round two of Filling the Research Gap was 23 February 2013. Under round two, up to $50 million (GST exclusive) will be made available to fund eligible research projects and to organise the coordination of national research programs. For further information on Filling the Research Gap, and to review the Research Strategy (July 2012 to June 2017) please visit the DAFF Filling the Research Gap web page.11

The first round of the Action on the Ground component of the CFF provided $72.5m of investment into research relating to emissions reductions. It is expected that the second round of funding will be open for applications in the first quarter of 2013. To keep up to date on when round two applications are open please visit the DAFF Action on the Ground web page.12

DAFF is currently seeking applications for project funding under the Extension and Outreach Program, which encourages farmers and land managers to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and participate in the CFI through technical information and support. Applications for funding can be submitted at any time until April 2016. There will be a bulk assessment of applications at least twice a year. The first assessment cycle closed on December 2012, and the closing date for the next assessment cycle will be published by DAFF in the coming months. For further details about the eligibility requirements, the grant guidelines, application documents and for more information regarding closing dates for applications, please visit the DAFF Extension and Outreach web page.13

The Carbon Farming Initiative: from Plan to Practice

The Clean Energy Regulator (the Regulator) will be hosting a series of workshops in April and May 2013 across New South Wales, Queensland and Victoria. The workshops are intended to help farmers, land managers, and their advisors with the implementation of a CFI project. Each workshop will focus on a specific methodology determination to demonstrate the requirements of what is required to conduct a CFI project.

For further information in relation to dates, locations and registration for these Regulator workshops please visit the Regulator's Events web page.14

Emissions abatement study

DAFF in conjunction with the Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences (ABARES), recently produced a study entitled Costs and potential of agricultural emissions abatement in Australia – a quantitative assessment of livestock abatement under the CFI15. This study explored the technical and economic abatement potential of the Australian agricultural sector in the context of the CFI, focusing on livestock activities.

ABARES concluded that the effect of the CFI on agricultural emissions is highly sensitive to the carbon price and will be modest at low to medium carbon prices. In addition, ABARES concluded that under current carbon prices in Australia, farmers would not adopt many of the known emissions abatement technologies for livestock, without a significant reduction in their cost.

Linking with Europe

The Department has released various exposure draft regulations to facilitate the linking of Australia's CPM with the European Union Emissions Trading System (EUETS). This includes an exposure draft of the Carbon Credits (Carbon Farming Initiative) Amendment Regulation 2013 No. A (Draft Regulation A) which proposes amendments to the Carbon Credits (Carbon Farming Initiative) Regulations 2011 (the Regulations) and the Department has invited interested parties to make submissions.

In addition, the Department has produced a consultation paper which outlines the design of the proposed registry arrangement for the linking of the CPM and EU ETS and an explanatory table to assist stakeholders in reviewing the draft regulations and consultation paper.

Interested parties are invited to make submissions on all the draft regulations, including Draft Regulation A and the consultation paper by close of business on 28 March 2013.

The draft amendments contained in these regulations, will facilitate the indirect link between the CPM and the EU ETS to be established by 1 July 2015 and to enable trade in the interim linking period. According to the consultation paper, it is expected that by 1 June 2013, the subordinate legislation will be introduced to give effect to the registry arrangements for the interim linking period.

The amendments under Draft Regulation A, set out the steps that the Regulator must take, in accordance with s154 (3) of the Act, when it receives an instruction, under s154 (1) of the Act, to transfer an ACCU from an Australian National Registry of Emissions Units16 to a foreign account. As drafted, the Regulator would have to confirm, at the time the instruction to transfer was received, that an international arrangement that allows the direct transfer of the ACCU to a foreign account was operational, and to ensure that the transfer is conducted in accordance with the arrangement. If neither of these is possible, the Regulator must notify the person who gave the instruction that the instruction has been declined.

For full details of all of the draft regulations proposed to facilitate the linking, including Draft Regulation A, as well as the consultation paper and the explanatory table, please visit the Department's web page.17

Amending the Positive List

The Department has released Carbon Credits (Carbon Farming Initiative) Amendment Regulation 2013 No. B (Draft Regulation B). This exposure draft provides for the addition and amendment of projects contained in the 'positive list' of eligible activities under the CFI. The changes proposed by Draft Regulation B are based on recommendations made by the DOIC. For activities that are added to the positive list, a key consideration is whether the carrying out of the activity goes beyond the common practice of that industry or the kind of environment in which the activity is to be carried out.

Interested parties are invited to make submissions on Draft Regulation B by 29 March 2013.

Additions to the positive list

Draft Regulation B proposes to add three new activities to the positive list.18 These activities are:

  • the human induced regeneration, on or after 1 July 2007 of native vegetation, on land that is not conservation land, by the creation of waterponds on scalded claypans in rangeland areas (this is a land management technique which is used to revegetate scaled claypans in rangelands);
  • the passive oxidisation of legacy waste emissions using biofilters or biocovers on landfills (this is achieved by adding a layer of compost or other organic material over the surface of the landfill);
  • the establishment of a new farm forestry plantation (this activity involves commercial tree growing for the harvest of wood products, which can provide farmers with an alternative stream of income, and additional associated benefits. However, the minimum area for this activity has been limited to 30% of a farm and capped at 100 hectares per farm. Also, a farm forestry plantation cannot be or have been established under a forestry management investment scheme under Division 394 of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1997).

Amendments to the positive list

As well as making additions to the positive list, Draft Regulation B also proposes various amendments to the Regulations, to update the positive list to ensure it only protects activities that go beyond what is the common practice in that relevant area.

It has been proposed that paragraph 3.28(1)(i) of the Regulations will be amended to more precisely define and limit the approved processes for the reduction of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from the digestive tract and dung of ruminants. Previously, 3.28(1)(i) of the Regulations had been interpreted quite broadly by some stakeholders, and included activities that were considered common practice in most areas. This amendment is an attempt to ensure that only activities that are not commonplace in this area should be eligible for crediting under the CFI.

Draft Regulation B also proposes to amend paragraph 3.28(1)(l) of the Regulations, so that the positive list activity is specified as 'the diversion, before 1 July 2012, of mixed solid waste, which would otherwise have entered a landfill facility, to an alternative waste treatment facility.' This amendment is proposed in order to clarify the substance of the activity on the positive list, and to ensure that the positive list only relates to activities that are not considered common practice. To facilitate this amendment, various other changes are required to the Regulations and are proposed under Draft Regulation B.

Firstly, Draft Regulation B contains a new definition of alternative waste treatment facility, which clarifies that this is a facility that uses advanced technology to process waste. Secondly, Draft Regulation B clarifies the timing requirement for this activity on the positive list. The diversion of the waste must have occurred before 1 July 2012. However, emissions from the already diverted waste may occur beyond 1 July 2012, and continue to be eligible for crediting under the CFI. Finally, it is proposed that paragraph 3.28(4) and (5) of the Regulations will be substituted by Draft Regulation B in order to provide greater clarity about the eligibility of diversion of particular kinds of waste. New paragraphs 3.28(4) (a) to (e) of Draft Regulation B exclude waste that the DOIC has considered it is common practice to divert away from landfill, and therefore, the avoidance of emissions from these kinds of waste is excluded from being credited under the CFI.

For further information on the detail behind Draft Regulation B and the proposed changes to the positive list, please visit the Department's webpage to review Draft Regulation B and an explanatory statement accompanying Draft Regulation B19.

What will 2013 bring?

The Federal Election of 14 September 2013 may well have a significant effect on the future of Australia's carbon pricing mechanism and wider climate change policy. Although, the CFI is expected to be protected and developed regardless of the outcome, it is unknown how the CFI will interact with other areas of Australia's carbon program and in particular, whether the Government will end up being the only buyer of ACCUs.

In the interim, it is expected that the current pace of development under the CFI will continue, with more methodologies being approved and more registered projects generating more ACCUs.

If you would like further detail on any aspect of the CFI and the opportunities it presents, please contact a member of our Climate Change team.


1The Department, CFI eNews: Jan/Feb 2013,

2This poll was conducted by Newspoll for The Australian on 26 February 2013.

3The Hon Greg Hunt MP, Shadow Minister for Climate Action, Environment & Heritage, A Plan for a Cleaner Environment & Real Solutions for All Australians (27 February 2013).

4Biochar is charcoal created by pyrolysis of biomass

5The Department, CFI eNews: Jan/Feb 2013,


7Further details of the registered projects can found on the Register of Offsets Projects available at

8Details of the ACCUs that have been issued can be found on the Register of Offsets Projects page, as above.


10For a full list of recipients of the first round grant please see the media release of 21 December 2012 from The Hon Mark Dreyfus QC MP at





15For the full ABARES study please visit

16Enacted under the Australian National Registry of Emissions Units Act 2011.


18At paragraph 3.28(1)(c)(vi), paragraph 3.28(1)(m) and paragraph 3.28(1)(n) of the Regulations.


The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Elisa de Wit
Some comments from our readers…
“The articles are extremely timely and highly applicable”
“I often find critical information not available elsewhere”
“As in-house counsel, Mondaq’s service is of great value”

Up-coming Events Search
Font Size:
Mondaq on Twitter
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
Email Address
Company Name
Confirm Password
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Media & IT
 Real Estate
 Wealth Mgt
Asia Pacific
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
United States
Worldwide Updates
Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including what sort of information you are interested in, for three primary purposes:
  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, newsletter alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our information providers who provide information free for your use.
  • Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) do not sell or provide your details to third parties other than information providers. The reason we provide our information providers with this information is so that they can measure the response their articles are receiving and provide you with information about their products and services.
    If you do not want us to provide your name and email address you may opt out by clicking here
    If you do not wish to receive any future announcements of products and services offered by Mondaq you may opt out by clicking here

    Terms & Conditions and Privacy Statement (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd and as a user you are granted a non-exclusive, revocable license to access the Website under its terms and conditions of use. Your use of the Website constitutes your agreement to the following terms and conditions of use. Mondaq Ltd may terminate your use of the Website if you are in breach of these terms and conditions or if Mondaq Ltd decides to terminate your license of use for whatever reason.

    Use of

    You may use the Website but are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the content and articles available (the Content). You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these terms & conditions or with the prior written consent of Mondaq Ltd. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information about’s content, users or contributors in order to offer them any services or products which compete directly or indirectly with Mondaq Ltd’s services and products.


    Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the documents and related graphics published on this server for any purpose. All such documents and related graphics are provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers hereby disclaim all warranties and conditions with regard to this information, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. In no event shall Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information available from this server.

    The documents and related graphics published on this server could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically added to the information herein. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers may make improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described herein at any time.


    Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including what sort of information you are interested in, for three primary purposes:

    • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting.
    • To enable features such as password reminder, newsletter alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
    • To produce demographic feedback for our information providers who provide information free for your use.

    Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) do not sell or provide your details to third parties other than information providers. The reason we provide our information providers with this information is so that they can measure the response their articles are receiving and provide you with information about their products and services.

    Information Collection and Use

    We require site users to register with Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to view the free information on the site. We also collect information from our users at several different points on the websites: this is so that we can customise the sites according to individual usage, provide 'session-aware' functionality, and ensure that content is acquired and developed appropriately. This gives us an overall picture of our user profiles, which in turn shows to our Editorial Contributors the type of person they are reaching by posting articles on Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) – meaning more free content for registered users.

    We are only able to provide the material on the Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) site free to site visitors because we can pass on information about the pages that users are viewing and the personal information users provide to us (e.g. email addresses) to reputable contributing firms such as law firms who author those pages. We do not sell or rent information to anyone else other than the authors of those pages, who may change from time to time. Should you wish us not to disclose your details to any of these parties, please tick the box above or tick the box marked "Opt out of Registration Information Disclosure" on the Your Profile page. We and our author organisations may only contact you via email or other means if you allow us to do so. Users can opt out of contact when they register on the site, or send an email to with “no disclosure” in the subject heading

    Mondaq News Alerts

    In order to receive Mondaq News Alerts, users have to complete a separate registration form. This is a personalised service where users choose regions and topics of interest and we send it only to those users who have requested it. Users can stop receiving these Alerts by going to the Mondaq News Alerts page and deselecting all interest areas. In the same way users can amend their personal preferences to add or remove subject areas.


    A cookie is a small text file written to a user’s hard drive that contains an identifying user number. The cookies do not contain any personal information about users. We use the cookie so users do not have to log in every time they use the service and the cookie will automatically expire if you do not visit the Mondaq website (or its affiliate sites) for 12 months. We also use the cookie to personalise a user's experience of the site (for example to show information specific to a user's region). As the Mondaq sites are fully personalised and cookies are essential to its core technology the site will function unpredictably with browsers that do not support cookies - or where cookies are disabled (in these circumstances we advise you to attempt to locate the information you require elsewhere on the web). However if you are concerned about the presence of a Mondaq cookie on your machine you can also choose to expire the cookie immediately (remove it) by selecting the 'Log Off' menu option as the last thing you do when you use the site.

    Some of our business partners may use cookies on our site (for example, advertisers). However, we have no access to or control over these cookies and we are not aware of any at present that do so.

    Log Files

    We use IP addresses to analyse trends, administer the site, track movement, and gather broad demographic information for aggregate use. IP addresses are not linked to personally identifiable information.


    This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that Mondaq (or its affiliate sites) are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of these third party sites. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this Web site.

    Surveys & Contests

    From time-to-time our site requests information from users via surveys or contests. Participation in these surveys or contests is completely voluntary and the user therefore has a choice whether or not to disclose any information requested. Information requested may include contact information (such as name and delivery address), and demographic information (such as postcode, age level). Contact information will be used to notify the winners and award prizes. Survey information will be used for purposes of monitoring or improving the functionality of the site.


    If a user elects to use our referral service for informing a friend about our site, we ask them for the friend’s name and email address. Mondaq stores this information and may contact the friend to invite them to register with Mondaq, but they will not be contacted more than once. The friend may contact Mondaq to request the removal of this information from our database.


    From time to time Mondaq may send you emails promoting Mondaq services including new services. You may opt out of receiving such emails by clicking below.

    *** If you do not wish to receive any future announcements of services offered by Mondaq you may opt out by clicking here .


    This website takes every reasonable precaution to protect our users’ information. When users submit sensitive information via the website, your information is protected using firewalls and other security technology. If you have any questions about the security at our website, you can send an email to

    Correcting/Updating Personal Information

    If a user’s personally identifiable information changes (such as postcode), or if a user no longer desires our service, we will endeavour to provide a way to correct, update or remove that user’s personal data provided to us. This can usually be done at the “Your Profile” page or by sending an email to

    Notification of Changes

    If we decide to change our Terms & Conditions or Privacy Policy, we will post those changes on our site so our users are always aware of what information we collect, how we use it, and under what circumstances, if any, we disclose it. If at any point we decide to use personally identifiable information in a manner different from that stated at the time it was collected, we will notify users by way of an email. Users will have a choice as to whether or not we use their information in this different manner. We will use information in accordance with the privacy policy under which the information was collected.

    How to contact Mondaq

    You can contact us with comments or queries at

    If for some reason you believe Mondaq Ltd. has not adhered to these principles, please notify us by e-mail at and we will use commercially reasonable efforts to determine and correct the problem promptly.

    By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions