Australia: Epc Contracts For Wind Energy Projects - South African Re Ipp Programme - Lessons Learned From Phases 1 And 2 (October 2012) Part 10

Last Updated: 27 October 2012

1.2.2 Electrical System Tests

Commissioning Tests shall be performed on all items of the Wind Farm electrical system, in accordance with the standards of a Reasonable and Prudent Operator, the standard procedures of the Contractor and the requirements of this Contract, and shall include (but not be limited to) the following:

  1. Wind Turbine transformers:
    1. Check mechanical state and earth connections.
    2. Check satisfactory equipment labelling.
    3. Check tap selector switch in correct position.
  1. Substation transformers:
    1. Ratio measurement on all tap settings.
    2. Winding resistance measurement on highest, lowest and nominal tap settings.
    3. Insulation resistance between all windings, and each winding to earth;
    4. Insulation resistance core-to-earth.
    5. Oil sample tests: breakdown strength, moisture content, and dissolved-gas content.
    6. Check all earth connections.
    7. Check all control, alarms, fans and pumps for correct operation.
    8. Check for satisfactory labelling.
  1. Medium Voltage cables:
    1. Visual check for damage to insulation, and satisfactory identification of cores.
    2. Perform insulation resistance tests.
    3. Check conductor and sheath conductivity and continuity.
    4. Check neutral and earth connection continuity (if applicable).
    5. Perform AC/DC voltage withstand tests ("pressure test") or otherwise as recommended by cable manufacturer.
    6. Check connection boxes.
  1. Medium Voltage and High Voltage switchgear:
    1. Check earth connections and mechanical state.
    2. Check satisfactory equipment labelling
    3. Check all secondary wiring matches drawings and all cores are clearly identified.
    4. Perform functional test (trip/close), including remote operation and indications if applicable.
    5. Perform voltage withstand tests ("pressure test") (to earth, between phases, and across open switch contacts).
    6. Perform conductivity tests across switch contacts (including earth switches) and across busbar joints (if applicable).
  1. Protection and control systems and relays:
    1. Check mechanical state and earth connection of all cubicles.
    2. Check satisfactory equipment labelling.
    3. Check all wiring within cubicles matches drawings and all cores are clearly identified.
    4. Perform insulation resistance tests on all secondary wiring.
    5. Perform magnetisation tests on all current transformers, and check polarity.
    6. Perform primary injection tests on current transformers, to relay terminals, to check ratios and correct connections.
    7. Perform secondary injection tests.
    8. Perform functional tests.
    9. Check calibrations of all measurement transducers and Meters.
  1. Earth (ground) systems:
    1. Measure resistance to earth of each earth electrode system, and check against design values and statutory requirements.

Upon successful commissioning of the electrical system demonstrating the system can be operated satisfactorily and safely a Commissioning Certificate will be issued.

1.2.3 Meteorological Masts and Instruments Tests

Commissioning Tests shall be performed on the meteorological masts (including the Reference Mast) as follows:

  1. Visual check on the assembly of all joints and on the as-installed condition of all components;
  2. Sample checking of bolt torques
  3. Commissioning Tests shall be performed on the meteorological masts instrumentation as follows:
    1. Visual check on the condition of all components, mounting cable routing and electrical connections.
    2. End to end line calibrations.
    3. Real time consistency check on all measurements.
    4. Proper communications with the SCADA.
    5. Complete calibration certificates of all the instruments have been provided.
    6. Functional check of the local logger.
    7. Check time stamp is synchronised with the SCADA system and the Meters.

Upon successful commissioning of the meteorological masts and instruments demonstrating the system can be operated satisfactorily and safely a Commissioning Certificate will be issued.

1.2.4 SCADA Tests

Commissioning Tests shall be performed on the SCADA as follows:

  1. Owner's standard Commissioning Tests for the SCADA;
  2. Attenuation measurements on all optical fibres;
  3. Tests to demonstrate that the system is able to record the data needed for the Acceptance Test procedures, namely:
    1. Ten (10) minute average values for wind speed, power, and operational status from all the Wind Turbines;
    2. Occurrence and correction of Wind Turbine events;
    3. Ten (10) minute average values for wind speed, direction, temperature and pressure from the meteorological mast(s) and the Reference Mast;
    4. Ten (10) minute average values of power, reactive power, frequency, and power factor from the Interconnection Points.

Upon successful commissioning of the SCADA system demonstrating that the system can be operated satisfactorily and safely a Commissioning Certificate will be issued.

1.2.5 Foundations and other Civil Works Tests

Concrete strength test results:

  1. [four (4)] grout cubes to be taken every [five] cubic meter ([5]m3), for testing after twentyfour (24) hours, seven (7) days and twenty eight (28) days; and
  2. one will be kept as a permanent record.

There shall be documentary evidence of completion of all the other civil works and completion of the O&M building.

Upon successful testing and inspection of the civil demonstrating that the foundations can be used safely a Commissioning Certificate will be issued.

1.2.6 Tests pursuant to regulatory requirements and grid code

Any tests that might be required under regulatory regimes or the grid code.]

Description of Commissioning Tests Required result
[insert] test [insert]

1.3 Performance Test

[Commissioning Tests for each Wind Turbine shall be conducted before Acceptance Tests. However, it is not necessary that all the Wind Turbines' Commissioning Tests have been completed in order to undertake the Acceptance Tests.

Figure 2 (refer at the end of Appendix 2) provides an overview of the testing regime. On successful completion of each of the Acceptance Tests an Acceptance Certificate is issued.

If any significant defects occur during the course of any Acceptance Test, they shall be remedied immediately by the Owner and the Acceptance Test for the affected item shall start again as soon as the defect has been remedied.

Where testing requirements address abnormal events such as transients and lightning strikes, compliance shall be demonstrated in accordance with design documents and by physical inspection.

Acceptance of the Project is achieved upon the successful completion of the Project Acceptance Test and issue of a list of insubstantial or minor defects that do not affect the safe operation of the Wind Farm. When the Project's Acceptance Test has been achieved the Project Acceptance Certificate will be issued.]

1.3.1 Wind Turbine Acceptance Test

The reliability of each Wind Turbine shall be demonstrated by its operation for a total of two hundred and forty (240) continuous hours with minimum availability of ninety-seven percent (97%), with the Wind Turbine producing and exporting power to the grid for at least one hundred and twenty (120) hours and operating at above rated wind speed for at least eight (8) hours without defects of any kind that could affect its long term operation. Operation in this section means rotating and connected to [insert] electrical system. It is not necessary that the one hundred and twenty (120) hours out of the two hundred and forty (240) hours be continuous.

Any gross deviations from the warranted power curve shall be classed as defects including, as a minimum, any deviation in excess of [10] %, from the nominal rated power, of the power output averaged over those periods when operation is above rated wind speed and below cutout wind speed.

The time and date on commencement of the test shall be recorded. All power output data, faults, errors, trips etc. that occur during the test shall be recorded by the SCADA.

1.3.2 Electrical system Acceptance Test

The electrical system Acceptance Test shall consist of:

  1. Satisfactory operation without failures of any kind during the period commencing with the start of the first Wind Turbine Acceptance Test, and ending at the successful completion of the last Wind Turbine Acceptance Test.
  2. After a period of at least [four (4)] hours at or above ninety percent [90%] of rated Wind Farm output, check the temperature of all Wind Turbine transformers and show satisfactory agreement with expected values appropriate to the load and the ambient air temperature.
  3. After a period of at least [four (4)] hours at or above ninety percent [90%] of rated Wind Farm output, check the temperatures of the substation transformer(s) and show satisfactory agreement with the expected values appropriate to the load and the ambient air temperature.
  4. Demonstrate that the Wind Farm has met all the requirements for connection to the grid, and obtain a certificate to that effect.
  5. Demonstrate by calculation, based on Factory Test results for transformers and cables, that the electrical losses (full-load loss and no-load loss) between the Wind Turbine terminals and the grid connection point are equal to or less than the values provided as Level A documentation as described in the Technical Specification.
  6. Demonstration of the remote disconnection to be witnessed by the Owner.

1.3.3 Substation Acceptance Test

The Contractor shall carry out Acceptance Tests of the substation primarily based on factory tests and sitespecific tests to be provided by the Owner, in accordance with the Specifications. The substation Acceptance Tests shall consist of, but not be limited to, the following:

  1. Check the conformity of civil engineering works and high, medium and low voltage equipments. Following on-site checks, minutes shall be signed by representatives of the Owner.
  2. Checks, tests and conformity control tests of civil engineering works and high, medium and low voltage equipments.
  3. Supplying a protocol for factory testing on the relay cabinets before their delivery.
  4. Individual tests and checks of all low voltage materials, to be done by the Owner, as evidenced by minutes to be delivered to the Owner.
  5. The Contractor shall arrange for all checks and tests of low voltage equipments to be done by a team of specialists, in the presence of an appointed Owner's representative, and the Contractor shall deliver written minutes for such tests.
  6. The Contractor shall complete the following checks and tests (without limitation):
  7. Tests of the following circuits, in accordance with relevant outlines:

    1. open/shut circuit breakers and selectors.
    2. signals and alarms.
    3. sequence checks of mechanical and electric locking mechanism.
    4. trigger and locking mechanism.
    5. CA and CC ancillary systems (engines and heaters supply, etc).
    6. Check characteristics of all current transformers:

    7. Isolation tests between:
    8. primary and earth
    9. secondary and earth.
    10. polarity or designation of accepted terminals.
    11. transformation ratio. For each core, five (5) measurements shall be taken at 10%, 30%, 50%, 70% and 100% of nominal current.
    12. Check characteristics of all voltage transformers:

    13. isolation tests between secondary and earth
    14. polarity or designation of accepted terminals.
    15. secondary input from outlet boxes (TC and TT) to check proper joining of measurement and protection equipment.
    16. primary input in all TC. A 50% nominal current input shall be enough.
  1. Check and test all the substation's low voltage equipment (protection equipment, operation control, ancillary services, etc)
  2. Adjustment, calibration and definition of parameter for protection, operation control, conducting posts and monitoring station equipment shall be done by the Contractor.
  3. Operational tests and commissioning of all facilities and associated communication.
  4. Once tension and control cables are in place, and before they are connected, the Owner shall complete isolation measurement between all conductors and the frame or screen. This measurement shall be at 500V, and shall produce a value of no less than 35 M Ohms.
  5. Check cable connection and continuity. These checks are independent from the factory tests of the equipment's internal cabling.
  6. All checks, tests and commissioning shall be done with the Owner as witness.
  7. The costs of equipment and materials necessary for testing and checking the facilities shall be borne by the Contractor.
  8. The facilities shall be operational, ready for the commissioning of the substation in accordance with usual operation and safety requirements and in accordance with industry practice.

1.3.4 SCADA Acceptance Test

The SCADA Acceptance Test shall follow successful commissioning of all the Wind Turbines, meteorological masts and substation sensors and controls. The SCADA Acceptance Test shall provide evidence of full compliance with the SCADA supplier's agreed specification including evidence of proper calibration of the transducers and signal processing. Line calibrations shall be demonstrated where appropriate.

Tests shall include as a minimum demonstrations of the following:

  1. Data collection over a continuous period of two hundred and forty (240) hours to demonstrate ninety nine point five percent (99.5%) data reliability for the turbines, substation and meteorological masts as measured by the number of ten (10) minute average records stored.
  2. Local and remote access.
  3. Remote alerts.
  4. Security.
  5. Dial-out alarm message.
  6. Local and remote control.
  7. Software functions as described in the user manuals including graphical user interface, presentation of Wind Turbine data, analysis of Wind Farm performance, power curves, wind data analysis and information collected at the Interconnection Points.
  8. Provision of reports to the agreed format.

1.3.5 Project Acceptance Test

The Project Acceptance Tests consists of the following steps:

  1. The reliability of the complete Wind Farm shall be demonstrated by the Wind Farm's operation for a total of seventy two (72) continuous hours without fault. Within this period the Wind Farm shall be exporting power at approximately rated capacity (at a minimum of ninety percent (90%) of this value) to the grid for at least a six (6) hour continuous period.
  2. The SCADA system shall provide a report of the Wind Farm availability based on data gathered over a continuous period of no less than one hundred and twenty (120) hours. The Owner shall check and approve the results presented in the report. It shall be demonstrated that the SCADA system can undertake this process automatically.

On successful completion of the Project Acceptance Test the Project shall have achieved acceptance level and the Project Acceptance Certificate shall be issued.

With respect to Pre-COD tests, a Pre-COD Acceptance Certificate shall be delivered when Pre-COD tests meet an acceptance level following successful completion of the Acceptance Test for such a Pre-COD test and the ancillary equipment necessary to operate the Wind Turbines in the relevant Pre-COD test, as well as the SCADA system which is necessary to control the operation of the Wind Turbines and the ancillary equipment in the relevant PreCOD test.

Description of Performance tests Required result
Achieved Capacity test

A [As a pre-condition to the Facility achieving the Commercial Operating Date under the Power Purchase Agreement, the Independent Engineer will need to certify the Achieved Capacity. If the Achieved Capacity falls short of the Contracted Capacity, such Achieved Capacity might substitute the Contracted Capacity.

B The Power Purchase Agreement does not stipulate the methodology by which the Achieved Capacity is measured.

We understand that it is the Government's intention that the methodology of calculating the Achieved Capacity be a calculation process and not a measurement process, so that the Achieved Capacity will reflect the nameplate capacity (i.e. so that the tests will not have to rely on the wind).]

[Drafting Note: Please note that the Owner might choose to trigger an Early Operating Period pursuant to clause 4.4 of the Power Purchase Agreement.]


[Drafting Note: This Schedule 9 is to be finalised based on the agreed performance criteria following review of the proposed detailed design and specification referred to in the Specification and the PPA.]

The Contractor must meet the following Performance Guarantees which shall be determined in accordance with the tests set out below:

1.1 Power Curve Guarantee

1.2 Acoustic Emissions Guarantee

1.3 System Losses

1.4 Reactive Power



[Drafting Note: The following structure is an example of the delay liquidated damages that may be listed in this Schedule.]

1.1 The Delay Liquidated Damages will be calculated on the basis of a loss of revenue for early operations.

1.1.1 [Note: Methodology for calculating delay liquidated damages to be discussed]

[Drafting note: under clause 4.6 of the PPA is that for each day that Commercial Operation is delayed beyond the Scheduled COD, the Operating Period will be reduced by one day and the Expiry Date will be brought forward by one day. The effect of this is that the term of the PPA will effectively be reduced by 2 days for each day of delay beyond the Scheduled COD. This 2 day reduction should be factored in when determining the rate of Delay Liquidated Damages.]

1.2 The aggregate liability for Delay Liquidated Damages must not exceed [ ]% of the Contract Price.

1.3 Delay Liquidated Damages must be invoiced weekly by the Owner and payment will be due within 30 Days of issue of such invoice.

1.4 At the expiration of 30 Days the amount invoiced will be a debt due and payable to the Owner on demand and may be deducted from any payments otherwise due from the Owner to the Contractor and the Owner may also have recourse to the security provided under the Contract.


2.1 Reduction in Contract Price for a failure to achieve Contracted Capacity :

If the Contractor fails to achieve Contracted Capacity, the Contract Price shall be reduced by an amount of [X.XX %] for each 1.00 % (pro-rated for part thereof) by which the Achieved Capacity falls short of the Contracted Capacity


Performance Liquidated Damages for breach of the Performance Guarantees are:

3.1 Liquidated Damages - Power Curve Guarantee

The aggregate liability for Performance Liquidated Damages for failing to achieve the Power Curve Guarantee is capped at [ ]% of the Contract Price.


Liquidated Damages - Acoustic Emissions Guarantee

The aggregate liability for Performance Liquidated Damages for failing to achieve the Acoustic Emissions Guarantee is capped at [ ]% of the Contract Price.


4.1 The overall aggregate liability for Delay Liquidated Damages and Performance Liquidated Damages must not exceed [25] % of the Contract Price.

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