Australia: Important Changes To Australian Patent Law

Last Updated: 4 July 2001
Article by Wayne Condon

The Australian Federal government has tabled the Patents Amendment Bill.

The Bill follows certain recommendations made recently by the Intellectual Property and Competition Review Committee and the Advisory Council on Industrial Property.

The Bill will, if enacted, have a very significant impact on patent law in Australia. The amendments made by the Bill will apply to patents for which the complete application is made on or after the day upon which the Bill becomes law.

A number of the proposed amendments will be relevant to the application phase of a patent. These are:

  • The patent applicant will be required to disclose to the Commissioner of Patents the results of any searches that may be carried out by the applicant in respect of the complete application or in respect of any provisional application which may have been filed and which may have been conducted in respect of any corresponding application filed outside Australia.
  • In making a decision as to whether a patent application meets the requirements of novelty and inventive step the Commissioner of Patents must now be satisfied that there are no lawful grounds of objection. Currently, the Commissioner applies a "benefit of the doubt" test in favour of the patent applicant when assessing novelty and inventive step.
  • The Commissioner of Patents will be given the power to re-examine an application for a standard patent in the period between acceptance and grant. If, as a result of the re-examination the Commissioner makes an adverse report he will be able to refuse to grant the patent after giving the patent applicant a reasonable opportunity to be heard, and after providing the patent applicant with a reasonable opportunity to amend the application to remove any lawful ground for objection. An appeal to the Federal Court of Australia against a decision of the Commissioner of Patents on this basis has been made available.
  • A patent applicant will not be entitled to amend a complete specification of a patent (whether a standard patent or an innovation patent) to remove a novelty, inventive step or innovative step objection if that objection arises as a result of information that should have been provided to the Commissioner as part of the duty of disclosure of search results.
  • A patent applicant will automatically be entitled to an extension of time for the doing of an act, where the applicant took due care in the circumstances to ensure the doing of the act within the time period. The applicant must file an application for an extension of time within the prescribed period.
  • Other amendments will have impact on both patent applications and granted patents (where the complete specification of that patent was lodged on or after the day on which the Bill becomes law). These are as follows:
  • For the purposes of defining the expression "prior art base", against which novelty and inventive step are measured, the amendments mean that a person skilled in the art is no longer limited to a person skilled in the art in Australia. Similarly, "common general knowledge" is no longer restricted to common general knowledge in Australia. In other words, a worldwide prior art base is established.
  • The threshold test for inventiveness has been raised. Currently, there is a local common general knowledge test, and in order to determine inventiveness it is permissible to combine that common general knowledge with information in a document publicly available anywhere in the world or information made publicly available through the doing of an act in Australia. This is provided that the skilled person could, before the priority date, reasonably be expected to have ascertained and have understood that information and regarded it as relevant to the art in Australia.

The proposed amendments will allow the combination of separate documents, different parts of a single document or of any combination of prior art information (including acts) where such combination would have been obvious to a person skilled in the relevant art (which person no longer needs to be a person skilled in the art in Australia). The amendments also remove the restriction that the person skilled in the art is expected to ascertain, understand and regard the information as relevant.

  • An amendment has also been made to Section 119 of the Patents Act 1990. This section provides for a prior use defence to patent infringement and is somewhat similar to Section 64 of the UK Patents Act 1977. As currently drafted, the defence to infringement does not apply if the alleged infringer derived the subject matter of the invention from the patentee or the patentee's predecessor in title. The amendment provides that the defence will still be available if the alleged infringer derived the subject matter of the invention from information publicly available by, or with the consent of, the patentee or the patentee's predecessor in title. The information must become publicly available by reason of disclosure at a recognised exhibition, publication before a learned society or where there has been a public trial of the invention less than 12 months before the priority date of the patent in suit.


If the Bill is enacted in its current form a significant change will have been affected to the novelty and inventiveness test for patentability in Australia. Theoretically the amendments may result in fewer patents going to grant and may see those that do being subject to challenge based on more stringent novelty and inventiveness tests.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Some comments from our readers…
“The articles are extremely timely and highly applicable”
“I often find critical information not available elsewhere”
“As in-house counsel, Mondaq’s service is of great value”

Mondaq Advice Centre (MACs)
Up-coming Events Search
Font Size:
Mondaq on Twitter
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
Email Address
Company Name
Confirm Password
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Media & IT
 Real Estate
 Wealth Mgt
Asia Pacific
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
United States
Worldwide Updates
Check to state you have read and
agree to our Terms and Conditions

Terms & Conditions and Privacy Statement (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd and as a user you are granted a non-exclusive, revocable license to access the Website under its terms and conditions of use. Your use of the Website constitutes your agreement to the following terms and conditions of use. Mondaq Ltd may terminate your use of the Website if you are in breach of these terms and conditions or if Mondaq Ltd decides to terminate your license of use for whatever reason.

Use of

You may use the Website but are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the content and articles available (the Content). You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these terms & conditions or with the prior written consent of Mondaq Ltd. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information about’s content, users or contributors in order to offer them any services or products which compete directly or indirectly with Mondaq Ltd’s services and products.


Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the documents and related graphics published on this server for any purpose. All such documents and related graphics are provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers hereby disclaim all warranties and conditions with regard to this information, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. In no event shall Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information available from this server.

The documents and related graphics published on this server could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically added to the information herein. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers may make improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described herein at any time.


Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including what sort of information you are interested in, for three primary purposes:

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, newsletter alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our information providers who provide information free for your use.

Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) do not sell or provide your details to third parties other than information providers. The reason we provide our information providers with this information is so that they can measure the response their articles are receiving and provide you with information about their products and services.

If you do not want us to provide your name and email address you may opt out by clicking here .

If you do not wish to receive any future announcements of products and services offered by Mondaq by clicking here .

Information Collection and Use

We require site users to register with Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to view the free information on the site. We also collect information from our users at several different points on the websites: this is so that we can customise the sites according to individual usage, provide 'session-aware' functionality, and ensure that content is acquired and developed appropriately. This gives us an overall picture of our user profiles, which in turn shows to our Editorial Contributors the type of person they are reaching by posting articles on Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) – meaning more free content for registered users.

We are only able to provide the material on the Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) site free to site visitors because we can pass on information about the pages that users are viewing and the personal information users provide to us (e.g. email addresses) to reputable contributing firms such as law firms who author those pages. We do not sell or rent information to anyone else other than the authors of those pages, who may change from time to time. Should you wish us not to disclose your details to any of these parties, please tick the box above or tick the box marked "Opt out of Registration Information Disclosure" on the Your Profile page. We and our author organisations may only contact you via email or other means if you allow us to do so. Users can opt out of contact when they register on the site, or send an email to with “no disclosure” in the subject heading

Mondaq News Alerts

In order to receive Mondaq News Alerts, users have to complete a separate registration form. This is a personalised service where users choose regions and topics of interest and we send it only to those users who have requested it. Users can stop receiving these Alerts by going to the Mondaq News Alerts page and deselecting all interest areas. In the same way users can amend their personal preferences to add or remove subject areas.


A cookie is a small text file written to a user’s hard drive that contains an identifying user number. The cookies do not contain any personal information about users. We use the cookie so users do not have to log in every time they use the service and the cookie will automatically expire if you do not visit the Mondaq website (or its affiliate sites) for 12 months. We also use the cookie to personalise a user's experience of the site (for example to show information specific to a user's region). As the Mondaq sites are fully personalised and cookies are essential to its core technology the site will function unpredictably with browsers that do not support cookies - or where cookies are disabled (in these circumstances we advise you to attempt to locate the information you require elsewhere on the web). However if you are concerned about the presence of a Mondaq cookie on your machine you can also choose to expire the cookie immediately (remove it) by selecting the 'Log Off' menu option as the last thing you do when you use the site.

Some of our business partners may use cookies on our site (for example, advertisers). However, we have no access to or control over these cookies and we are not aware of any at present that do so.

Log Files

We use IP addresses to analyse trends, administer the site, track movement, and gather broad demographic information for aggregate use. IP addresses are not linked to personally identifiable information.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that Mondaq (or its affiliate sites) are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of these third party sites. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this Web site.

Surveys & Contests

From time-to-time our site requests information from users via surveys or contests. Participation in these surveys or contests is completely voluntary and the user therefore has a choice whether or not to disclose any information requested. Information requested may include contact information (such as name and delivery address), and demographic information (such as postcode, age level). Contact information will be used to notify the winners and award prizes. Survey information will be used for purposes of monitoring or improving the functionality of the site.


If a user elects to use our referral service for informing a friend about our site, we ask them for the friend’s name and email address. Mondaq stores this information and may contact the friend to invite them to register with Mondaq, but they will not be contacted more than once. The friend may contact Mondaq to request the removal of this information from our database.


This website takes every reasonable precaution to protect our users’ information. When users submit sensitive information via the website, your information is protected using firewalls and other security technology. If you have any questions about the security at our website, you can send an email to

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user’s personally identifiable information changes (such as postcode), or if a user no longer desires our service, we will endeavour to provide a way to correct, update or remove that user’s personal data provided to us. This can usually be done at the “Your Profile” page or by sending an email to

Notification of Changes

If we decide to change our Terms & Conditions or Privacy Policy, we will post those changes on our site so our users are always aware of what information we collect, how we use it, and under what circumstances, if any, we disclose it. If at any point we decide to use personally identifiable information in a manner different from that stated at the time it was collected, we will notify users by way of an email. Users will have a choice as to whether or not we use their information in this different manner. We will use information in accordance with the privacy policy under which the information was collected.

How to contact Mondaq

You can contact us with comments or queries at

If for some reason you believe Mondaq Ltd. has not adhered to these principles, please notify us by e-mail at and we will use commercially reasonable efforts to determine and correct the problem promptly.