Uruguay: Ley 19.749. Regulación para combatir las actividades terroristas

Last Updated: 24 July 2019
Article by Galante & Martins

La Ley 19.749, llamada "Ley contra el financiamiento del terrorismo y aplicación de sanciones financieras contra las personas y entidades vinculadas al terrorismo, su financiamiento y la proliferación de armas de destrucción masiva" (en adelante la "Ley"), tiene por objeto desestimular el financiamiento del terrorismo, así como de la proliferación de armas de destrucción masiva, a través de la implementación de sanciones financieras de acuerdo a lo establecido en las Resoluciones del Consejo de Seguridad de las Naciones Unidas.

De esta forma la referida ley viene a complementar la normativa existente hasta la fecha en la temática, dada por las leyes 17.835, 19.484 y 19.574 entre otras.

 

Alcance y obligaciones

Según estipula la Ley aquellos sujetos comprendidos en los artículos 8°, 12, 13 y 29 de la Ley N° 19.574, a saber: los organismos públicos, sujetos obligados financieros, sujetos obligados no financieros y quienes efectúen transporte de efectivo e instrumentos monetarios y metales preciosos, deben en el marco del desarrollo de su actividad, controlar y verificar en forma permanente una serie de listas de la ONU. Estas listas son:

  • Las listas de individuos o entidades asociadas a organizaciones terroristas, confeccionadas por la Organización de las Naciones Unidas en virtud de las Resoluciones del Consejo de Seguridad S/RES/1267, S/RES/1988, S/RES/1989 y sucesivas.
  • Las listas de individuos o entidades vinculadas al financiamiento de la proliferación de armas de destrucción masiva, confeccionadas en virtud de las Resoluciones del Consejo de Seguridad de la Organización de las Naciones Unidas S/RES/1718, S/RES/1737, S/RES/2231 y sucesivas.
  • Las designaciones de personas físicas o jurídicas o entidades en virtud de la Resolución del Consejo de Seguridad de la Organización de las Naciones Unidas S/RES/1373.
  • La nómina de personas declaradas terroristas por resolución judicial firme nacional o extranjera, de conformidad con lo establecido en el literal B), del artículo 17, de la Ley N° 17.835, de 23 de setiembre de 2004.

Según establece el decreto reglamentario las listas actualizadas estarán disponibles en la página web del Banco Central del Uruguay y de la SENACLAFT para su consulta, tanto de los sujetos obligados como del público en general.

En este sentido, si se constata que hay coincidencia entre las personas físicas o jurídicas respecto de las cuales debe operar con las que surgen de dichos listados, la ley ordena un determinado accionar: (1) se efectúe "el congelamiento preventivo inmediato y sin demora, de los fondos y demás activos financieros o recursos económicos de dichas personas o entidades, e impedir asimismo el ingreso de fondos a disposición de las mismas" y (2) se notifique en forma inmediata a la Unidad de Información y Análisis Financiero (UIAF) del Banco Central del Uruguay (BCU), sin noticia de la persona afectada.

De esta forma, se debería evitar y prohibir dentro las facultades que tenga el sujeto obligado la transferencia, conversión, disposición o movimiento de fondos u otros activos, de las personas físicas, jurídicas o entidades que coincidan con la información que arrojen las listas. La referencia a las facultades del sujeto obligado es fundamental, ya que aquellos que no respondan al sector financiero, ven limitada su posibilidad de acción en el sentido esperado por la norma.

 

Medidas a tomar por la UIAF

Notificada que fue, la Unidad deberá revisar la información brindada y podrá:

  • disponer el levantamiento del congelamiento preventivo si se comprobara por cualquier medio fehaciente que se trataría de un caso de homonimia o falsos positivos. Una vez dispuesto dicho levantamiento le deberá comunicar a la Secretaría Nacional para la Lucha contra el Lavado de Activos y el Financiamiento del Terrorismo; o
  • comunicar al tribunal penal competente, el que dispondrá de un plazo de hasta 72 horas, para determinar el mantenimiento o no del congelamiento. Una vez confirmada la medida, se le notificará al interesado en el plazo de tres días hábiles

Un punto fundamental es que la medida o congelamiento, no se podría levantar hasta tanto la persona o entidad sea excluida de la lista correspondiente y no aparezca en ninguna otra de las indicadas.

 

Acceso a fondos

Según establece la reglamentación en forma excepcional el poder judicial podrá autorizar el acceso a los fondos u activos congelados, para la:

  • ejecución de gravámenes de cualquier naturaleza acordados con anterioridad a la fecha en que la persona fue objeto de la designación que generó el congelamiento preventivo o sanción;
  • realización de pagos a un tercero no sancionado por la ejecución de contratos anteriores a la fecha de la designación del pagador;
  • cobertura de las necesidades básicas de la persona designada o sus familiares y honorarios por asistencia letrada;
  • gastos ocasionados por servicios ordinarios de custodia o mantenimiento de los fondos u otros activos inmovilizado.

 

Revisión o exclusión de las listas de la ONU

Un punto fundamental a destacar es que aquellas personas físicas o jurídicas o entidades que hayan sido incluidas en la listas de la ONU, pueden solicitar la revisión de su inclusión, a la UIAF o a la SENACLAFT, según corresponda, para que estas a través del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, requieran la apertura de un proceso de revisión ante Naciones Unidas.

La solicitud de la exclusión debe estar fundada y estar acompañada de los elementos probatorios correspondientes.

También podrá requerirse dicha revisión ante el Defensor del Pueblo y Punto Focal de las Naciones Unidas.

 

Sanciones a los sujetos obligados

Es importante resaltar que si los sujetos obligados referidos en el punto I, no cumplieran con las medidas referidas, se pueden ver sujetos a la aplicación de sanciones administrativas y económicas (multas) , las cuales se graduarán según lo establecido en los artículos 12 y 13 de la ley 19.574 y el Decreto Ley 15.322.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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