Uruguay: Registro De Personas Obligadas Al Pago De Pensiones Alimenticias A Cargo Del BPS

Last Updated: 23 March 2018
Article by Maria Emilia Mareco

Se crea el registro de personas obligadas al pago de pensiones alimenticias a cargo del Banco de Previsión Social

Por ley n° 19. 80 se dispuso la creación bajo la órbita del Banco de Previsión Social de un registro de personas obligadas al pago de pensiones alimenticias decretadas u homologadas judicialmente.

Las mutaciones a nivel laboral son cada vez más frecuentes y a ellas no escapan quienes se encuentran obligados a servir las pensiones alimenticias. El obligado a servir una pensión alimenticia debería cumplir sin más, facilitando los datos relativos a su lugar de trabajo e ingresos, así como informando los posibles cambios que se generen, pero en la mayoría de las situaciones esto no ocurre. La necesidad de localizar el lugar de trabajo o las fuentes de ingresos del obligado a cumplir el servicio pensionario, hasta el momento constituía una difícil tarea que debía llevar a cabo quien se beneficiaba de los alimentos. La creación del Registro permite conocer las modificaciones en la situación laboral de los obligados, logrando que no se interrumpa el cumplimiento de la obligación y evitando atrasos que afecten a los beneficiarios.

¿Cuál es el objetivo de la creación del Registro de personas obligadas al pago de pensiones alimenticias?

Conforme lo dispuesto por el Código de la Niñez y la Adolescencia son acreedores de alimentos los niños y adolescentes, así como los mayores de dieciocho años y menores de veintiuno que no dispongan, en este caso, de medios de vida propios y suficientes para su sustentación satisfactoria y decente. Como contrapartida se dispone por el mismo cuerpo normativo que son obligados a servir alimentos los padres, o él o los adoptantes, y para el caso de imposibilidad o insuficiencia de estos, lo serán subsidiariamente; los ascendientes más próximos, con preferencia los del progenitor obligado; el cónyuge respecto de los hijos del otro en cuanto conviva con el beneficiario; el concubino o la concubina, en relación a los hijos del otro integrante de la pareja, que no son fruto de esa relación, si conviven todos juntos formando una familia de hecho; y los hermanos legítimos o naturales, con preferencia los de doble vinculo sobre los de vinculo simple.

El Registro se creó con la finalidad de asegurar, facilitar y agilizar el cumplimiento del servicio de pensiones alimenticias decretadas u homologadas judicialmente en favor de aquellos acreedores que mencionamos en el párrafo anterior. Los alimentos están constituidos por las prestaciones monetarias y en especie que sirven para satisfacer las necesidades del beneficiario en cuanto a sustento, habitación, vestimenta, salud, educación, cultura y recreación. La regularidad en el cumplimiento de dicha obligación es primordial, y es por eso que se crea el Registro. Su función principal es permitir conocer las modificaciones en la situación laboral de los obligados a servir alimentos y tomar rápidamente las medidas necesarias para evitar la interrupción del servicio.

¿A cargo de quien se coloca el Registro?

El Registro se colocó en el ámbito del Banco de Previsión Social, en virtud del flujo de información con que cuenta, a saber, gestiona datos relativos a la historia laboral de los trabajadores e información referente a las empresas.

La Sede judicial que decrete u homologue una pensión alimenticia y disponga su retención, deberá cursar una comunicación al Banco de Previsión Social la que deberá contener determinados datos de la persona obligada a los efectos de que este lo incluya en el Registro.

¿Qué contenido debe reunir la comunicación que cursa el Juzgado al Banco de Previsión Social?

Dicha comunicación debe contener:

  • Nombres y apellidos, número de cedula de identidad y domicilio del obligado.
  • Monto de la pensión alimenticia decretada u homologada.
  • Nombre, apellidos y domicilio de los beneficiarios.
  • Nombres, apellidos, cedula de identidad y domicilio del administrador, para el caso de poseer cuenta bancaria se deberá identificar la misma.
  • Identificación del tribunal, caratula, número de expediente y fecha de la resolución judicial respectiva.

¿Cómo se gestionara el Registro por parte del Banco de Previsión Social?

Para que el Registro funcione de forma óptima y el servicio pensionario sea continuo y regular se colocan a cargo de Banco una serie de obligaciones tales como mantener actualizado el Registro con la información brindada por las Sedes Judiciales competentes, comunicar en forma fehaciente a los empleadores y entidades públicas o privadas en las que el obligado alimentario este registrado como dependiente, titular, o socio la orden judicial de retención, así como comunicar a la Sede competente en un plazo de cinco días hábiles las bajas de actividades de quienes integren el registro y los ceses de prestaciones económicas sobre las que se efectuaban retenciones.

Resta por destacar la obligación impuesta a los empleadores y entidades públicas o privadas de efectuar la retención dispuesta por la Sede competente, sin perjuicio de que dicha obligación ya se encontraba prevista en el Código de la Niñez y la Adolescencia.

Por último, también se prevé la carga del obligado de solicitar a la Sede competente comunicar al Banco de Previsión Social la baja del registro cuando cesen los supuestos que dieron lugar a su inclusión en el mismo.

A modo de conclusión, existen varias normas a nivel internacional como la Convención Sobre los Derechos del Niño y a nivel nacional como el Código Civil y el Código de la Niñez y la Adolescencia que reconocen y consagran los derechos de niños y adolescentes respecto de la satisfacción de sus necesidades básicas regulando el concepto de alimentos, su forma de prestación, los caracteres de la obligación, los obligados a brindarlos y las medidas para garantizar su cumplimiento. La norma que venimos de analizar viene a reforzar el cumplimiento de estas, se trata de una ley sencilla, con un corto articulado que pretende asegurar la satisfacción óptima e ininterrumpida de la prestación de alimentos. Facilitando además en gran medida la obtención de información acerca de las fuentes de ingresos del obligado a servir una pensión alimenticia, carga que hasta el momento pesaba sobre el beneficiario o sobre quien hacía las veces de administrador.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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