Uruguay: Multas de tránsito con videocámaras

Last Updated: 14 February 2018
Article by Diego Galante

Seguidamente damos difusión a la nota periodística del Semanario Crónicas referida a las multas por infracciones tránsito, publicada el 9 de febrero de 2018.

La Intendencia de Montevideo comenzó a aplicar multas por circular por la ciudad con vehículos que adeuden el pago de la patente, a través de cámaras colocadas en distintos puntos. Según el abogado Diego Galante, es poco claro el procedimiento, dado que la sanción debe ejecutarse de forma presencial.

El pasado 1º de febrero, la Intendencia de Montevideo (IM) comenzó a implementar un sistema de fiscalización de patentes a través de 15 cámaras distribuidas en todo el departamento. Se trata de una tecnología que reconoce visualmente el código de la matricula, toma un registro fotográfico e identifica si el propietario del vehículo mantiene deudas con la comuna o no.

Para su adquisición se invirtió un total de US$ 270.000 incluyendo el costo de mantenimiento y servicio y alcanza a la totalidad de vehículos, incluyendo las motocicletas. Los medios de prueba estarán disponibles en la página web de la Intendencia.

La infracción insumirá una multa del 25% del monto de la patente anual. Se podrán colocar hasta cuatro por año, totalizando hasta el 100% del valor de la patente, si es que la situación de morosidad se mantiene y sigue circulando por el departamento y se adiciona a las deudas ya registradas con la comuna.

El tributo no es nuevo, sino que el cambio es la forma de implementarlo, pasando de la forma presencial a la electrónica, reduciendo costos relacionados a recursos humanos y materiales.

La medida abarca todas las matriculas del país que circulen por el departamento de Montevideo. Juan Voelker, director de Recursos Financieros, dijo a CRÓNICAS que esta iniciativa forma parte de un plan general iniciado en el año 2016, impulsada desde el Sistema Único de Cobro Vehiculares (Sucive) y el Congreso de Intendentes, bajo un plan de regulación de adeudos. Según explicó, la fiscalización se debe realizar en cada uno de los departamentos, abarcando la totalidad de las matrículas, estando empadronadas en la capital o no.

Si bien el Sucive es un mecanismo de articulación de todas las intendencias, el ámbito de tributación se refiere a lo departamental, así como también lo son la fiscalización y el ordenamiento del tránsito.

Voelker aseguró que tienen la experiencia de que cada vez que se realizaban fiscalizaciones, los niveles de morosidad descendían, y añadió que actualmente recurre a las oficinas de la comuna "una importante afluencia de público"  buscando regularizarse.

Inequidad tributaria

Voelker comentó que desde la IM están convencidos que promover la fiscalización de la patente para la circulación es un elemento central en la reducción de la morosidad y que la misma es un motivo de atención, dado que implica una inequidad tributaria, algo que, aseguró, han combatido desde el inicio.

El concepto de equidad tributaria refiere al pago de los impuestos tal cual están establecidos en la normativa, explicó el director. "Si hay dos vehículos que deben pagar la misma patente, pero uno lo hace y el otro no, y ambos circulan libremente por la ciudad, allí se da una situación de inequidad tributaria", explayó.

En este sentido, la inequidad tributaria relacionada a la patente de rodados es actualmente, en Montevideo, de un 17%, apuntó, una cifra cercana al promedio nacional, que se encuentra en un 21% y que "es la más baja de todo el país".

Mecanismos de notificación

La primera notificación que se realizará a los contribuyentes afectados, en el caso de que estén empadronados en Montevideo, será a través de una nota física que llegará al domicilio registrado en la Intendencia en el documento de identificación del vehículo. En el caso de las matrículas del Interior se realizará a través de la publicación en el Diario Oficial, disponible en la página web del organismo.

Una vez recibida la notificación pasa un período de diez días hábiles en los cuáles los contribuyentes pueden efectuar descargos frente a la Intendencia, luego de lo cual, la sanción queda firme y se aplica la multa del 25% del monto de la patente anual.

"Poco claro"

En tanto, el  Dr. Diego Galante  del Estudio Galante & Martins, comentó a CRÓNICAS que para realizar cualquier imposición de sanción administrativa –como lo configura una multa por circular en infracción – la IM debe detener el vehículo en forma presencial para determinar quién es la persona que lo maneja, alguien que, no necesariamente, debe ser el dueño del mismo.

Según dijo Galante, esto se basa en un principio constitucional asentado en el concepto de inocencia, el cual expresa que nadie debe responder ni asegurar que es responsable de ningún tipo de obligación si no es por una actuación personal, comprobada y con el derecho de defensa.

"Hay una presunción de la Intendencia de que quien es el titular registral del vehículo es el responsable de una infracción de tránsito, y eso necesariamente no es así. Esto es el elemento que está faltando en la discusión real de todo el problema de las multas de tránsito", comentó.

De igual forma, aseguró "el ciudadano tiene el derecho restricto a ser respetado como tal y no a que se le imponga una multa y una infracción de una manera que no sea transparente. Si a usted le están imputando una infracción, lo mínimo que tiene es darle la oportunidad de que se defienda, porque si no, llegamos al hecho de que con tener toda la ciudad llena de cámaras usted dispara con un botón las multas".

En esta línea, explicó que la persona a la cual se le dirigió la sanción está en derecho de recurrir e impugnar alegando que no fue quien estaba circulando con el vehículo. "Lo que ocurre es que los mecanismos que existen en Uruguay no están claros, porque todo induce a que usted no puede pagar la patente si no paga necesariamente la infracción", comentó.

Algo similar ocurriría con las cámaras ubicadas en los semáforos, que multan excesos de velocidad y cruces en rojo. Sin embargo, el abogado explicó que, en este caso, tanto en Uruguay como en la mayoría de los países, cuando las infracciones de tránsito ocurren por estos motivos, la mayoría de la justicia ha admitido que es válido.

Acceda a la nota complet aquí: http://www.cronicas.com.uy/sociedad/fiscalizacion-la-im-vehiculos-traves-tecnologia-deja-dudas-legitimidad

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