Uruguay: Prohibición De Cesiones Y Traspasos En El Deporte

Last Updated: 28 September 2017
Article by Diego Galante

El Poder Ejecutivo dictó el pasado 21 de setiembre de 2017 un Decreto para regular la transferencia y cesiones de derechos en contratos de trabajo de los deportistas ( https://medios.presidencia.gub.uy/legal/2017/decretos/09/cons_min_526.pdf).

Esta nueva norma actualiza o reglamenta la prohibición de efectuar negocios jurídicos que supongan ceder a personas físicas o entidades no afiliadas cualquier derecho sobre la prestación del trabajo o actividades de los deportistas. Lo que comúnmente se llama la "compra del pase" que hacen contratistas, representantes o inversores (incluso a veces los mismos padres o familiares del deportista), que adquieren a los clubes la "ficha" o los derechos económicos derivados de los contratos de trabajo de los deportistas. Los clubes siempre conservan los "derecho federativos" por razón de integrar una organización deportiva que tiene a su cargo la organización de las competencias, eventos o torneos (federación, asociación, unión, etc).

 Mediante estas cesiones de los "derechos económicos", los clubes obtienen fondos o recursos para sus actividades y también en algunos casos realizan operaciones opacas o poco transparentes con terceros. Quienes invierten en adquirir la "ficha" de un deportista, lo hacen para lograr revenderlo a otras entidades o clubes con una expectativa de ganancia.

 No es una norma nueva en Uruguay, porque quizá de manera pionera en el mundo, desde el año 1980 ya estaba vigente el Decreto Ley 14.996 que dispone aún hoy (https://www.impo.com.uy/bases/decretos-ley/14996-1980):

(Cesión de derechos sobre la prestación de la actividad de un deportista o sobre su transferencia). Prohíbense todas las cesiones de derechos sobre la prestación de la actividad de un deportista o sobre su transferencia, efectuadas por instituciones afiliadas a las asociaciones o federaciones reconocidas oficialmente o por cualquier otra institución con personería jurídica inscripta en el registro respectivo, en favor de personas físicas, o de personas morales que no revistan la indicada naturaleza. Cométese al organismo rector de cada rama del deporte o, en su defecto, a la Comisión Nacional de Educación Física, el deber de velar por la observancia de esta disposición y de sancionar administrativamente, hasta con pena de desafiliación si correspondiere, toda infracción que comprobare

 Es cierto que donde se manifiesta con mayor intensidad este tipo de situaciones es en el fútbol, pero las normas anteriores comprenden a cualquier actividad deportiva, en la medida que haya cesiones de derechos sobre contratos de trabajo o de servicios.

 En el ámbito de la FIFA el Reglamento sobre el Estatuto y la Transferencia de Jugadores dispone en el Art. 18bis ( https://resources.fifa.com/mm/document/affederation/administration/01/95/83/85/regulationsstatusandtransfer_2014_s_spanish.pdf):

1. Ningún club concertará un contrato que permita a cualquier parte de dicho contrato, o a terceros, asumir una posición por la cual pueda influir en asuntos laborales y sobre transferencias relacionados con la independencia, la política o la actuación de los equipos del club. 2. La Comisión Disciplinaria de la FIFA podrá imponer sanciones disciplinarias a los clubes que no cumplan las obligaciones estipuladas en este artículo.

 El Decreto comentado reglamenta ahora varios aspectos:

  1. cada federación o asociación podrá sancionar, incluso con la desafiliación, a los clubes o entidades afiliadas que incumplan con la prohibición vigente en las cesiones de derechos sobre la prestación de trabajo de los deportistas.
  2. cada club debe entregar a la Secretaría Nacional de Deportes, con carácter previo a la transferencia, una declaración jurada con toda la información sobre la transacción (datos del deportista, del intermediario y del club, datos de la operación).
  3. se obliga a que los clubes presenten ante la Secretaría Nacional de Deportes sus balances anualmente, 90 días posteriores a la aprobación por la Asamblea Ordinaria respectiva.

 El punto de más relevancia es lo dispuesto en cuanto a las sanciones que se pueden imponer a las personas físicas intervinientes en la operación, esto es, deportistas, representantes, intermediarios, dirigentes, entre otros. Se remite a lo dispuesto en el artículo 80 de la Ley 17.292, que dice:

Comprobada la existencia de una infracción a las obligaciones previstas en la presente ley y sin perjuicio de las acciones civiles o penales a que hubiere lugar, el infractor será pasible de las siguientes sanciones, las que se podrán aplicar en forma independiente o conjunta según resulte de las circunstancias del caso:

Pic 1

Considerando el valor de la Unidad reajustable, el máximo previsto para una sanción rondaría los US$ 135.ooo, suma que no parece demasiado adecuada o proporcional a los valores millonarios que se manejan en las transferencias de futbolistas actualmente. Sin embargo, es verdad que ese el el tope dispuesto por la propia ley, que no puede ser superado por la reglamentación.

 Estas sanciones, además, son independientes de las propias fijadas en el Decreto Ley 14.996, que incluye la posibilidad de declarar la nulidad de las operaciones de cesión por violar el orden público (art. 1) y se contraria a normas prohibitivas (art. 8 Código Civil), como lo ha reiterado nuestra justicia en varios casos fallados por la Suprema Corte de Justicia en los últimos años (ejemplo caso Fernando Pavón v. Gustavo Varela:  http://bjn.poderjudicial.gub.uy/BJNPUBLICA/hojaInsumo2.seam?cid=49567; caso Danubio Fútbol Club v. Jadson Viera:  http://bjn.poderjudicial.gub.uy/BJNPUBLICA/hojaInsumo2.seam?cid=49567; caso Danubio Fútbol Club v. Marcelo Silva:  http://bjn.poderjudicial.gub.uy/BJNPUBLICA/hojaInsumo2.seam?cid=49567).

 También pueden imponerse otras sanciones administrativas y penales.

 Aunque el decreto que estamos comentando no lo dice, las cesiones de derechos que se hayan realizado desde la vigencia del Decreto Ley 14.996 (año 1980), son todas transacciones inválidas a la luz del derecho uruguayo, pasibles de sanciones y naturalmente anulables, tal como hemos indicado. Incluso podrían ser desconocidas no sólo por el Estado, sino por el mismo deportista, aún cuando haya dado su consentimiento o haya tenido participación en la misma.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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