Uruguay: Acuerdo Laboral y Sindical para nueva Planta Forestal de UPM

Last Updated: 20 September 2017
Article by Mauro Da Rocha

Con motivo de la construcción de una nueva planta de celulosa que se pronostica para el año 2018, el pasado martes 12 de setiembre se firmó un acuerdo entre la empresa finlandesa UPM, el Pit Cnt, el Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad Social y otros actores. En el presente trabajo nos proponemos destacar los puntos principales que contempla el documento arribado entre las partes.

Negociación del Acuerdo Laboral

Tras mucho tiempo de diálogo y discusiones, dada la presencia en nuestro país de la empresa finlandesa UPM hace ya varios años, y previendo la construcción de una tercera papelera, en la presente semana se celebró un acuerdo laboral. Dicho acuerdo fue firmado por representantes de la empresa UPM, el Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad Social, el Pit CNT, Oficina de Planeamiento y Presupuesto, Cámara Metalúrgica del Uruguay y Cámara de la Construcción del Uruguay. Estos actores, han intercambiado opiniones e interactuado entre sí en todo este tiempo, surgiendo la necesidad del planteo de necesidades, preocupaciones, y diferentes visiones acerca de la construcción y temas afines de una tercera papelera.

Tal como se puede apreciar tras la lectura del acuerdo arribado, las partes firmantes se comprometen a trabajar en conjunto, incluso creando equipos técnicos que monitorearán y tratarán temas primordiales como seguridad y salud ocupacional, capacitación, etc. Un ejemplo de estos grupos de trabajo es la creación de una "Comisión Tripartita de Seguridad e Higiene Laboral" para el Proyecto, la cual será conformada por delegados de las partes y personal de la Inspección General del Trabajo y de la Seguridad Social.

Principales Aspectos

El aspecto principal que debemos destacar en el espíritu del acuerdo es el principio de colaboración entre las partes, con pasajes tales como "Las partes se comprometen a apoyar en lo que sea requerido"..."...Contribuir a generar las condiciones de comenzar a operar y producir plenamente la nueva Planta industrial..." ... "Afianzar la negociación colectiva de buena fe como instrumento más adecuado para el logro de los objetivos de este Acuerdo Marco". Este principio se observa a lo largo del documento.

Por su parte cabe mencionar también el papel primordial que se le da a impulsar y promover la seguridad y salud laboral. Se hace énfasis en lograr estándares internacionales en índices de siniestralidad intentando lograr "cero accidente de trabajo de gravedad" implementando políticas en este sentido para la prevención de accidentes de trabajo y enfermedades profesionales. En este sentido se plantea que el acuerdo se regirá por principios rectores como por ejemplo: "1. La seguridad e higiene laboral en la Obra, así como la salud ocupacional, constituyen aspectos prioritarios en el Proyecto" "2. Es fundamental aplicar los máximos esfuerzos en la prevención de accidentes de trabajo y enfermedades profesionales."

La capacitación profesional es otro punto fundamental del acuerdo, expresándose el compromiso de las partes de "Contribuir en la formación y capacitación especializada para el trabajo y en la consolidación de la mano de obra uruguaya calificada, para tener posibilidad de vincularse directa o indirectamente en el Proyecto de UPM". Se plantea por su parte, el apoyo mediante instituciones existentes especializadas en este aspecto como por ejemplo INEFOP, FOCAU, UTEC, etc.

Se regula también la necesidad de implementar protocolos que atiendan aspectos importantes para los obreros como ser transporte, alimentación y vivienda. Con respecto a estos puntos el acuerdo prevé que se generen protocolos sobre servicios de transporte y alimentación en obra, que garanticen buenas condiciones, esparcimiento, recreación, esparcimiento y servicios para los trabajadores. En cuanto al  alojamiento se dispone que se procurará generar alojamientos desconcentrados en regiones próximas a las obras, para los trabajadores que no se encuentren radicados en la zona.

Por último debemos mencionar que el acuerdo establece mecanismos de prevención y solución de conflictos con actuaciones en diversos ámbitos, los cuales serán escalonados, teniendo como un primer paso instancias de diálogo y negociación. Por su parte se prevé también el funcionamiento de diversos ámbitos bipartitos o tripartitos de conciliación y mediación, ordenados, escalonados y sucesivos. Ante esto, se establece el compromiso de las partes de "No adopción de medidas por las partes que afecten la regularidad del trabajo o el normal desarrollo de las actividades en la Obra, antes de haber finalizado total y formalmente todas las instancias de conciliación y mediación previstas"

Un gran avance

Sin perjuicio de que las negociaciones entre la empresa finlandesa y el gobierno uruguayo continúan, en cuanto a infraestructura, inversión y temas operativos, fuentes de la empresa afirmaron a Presidencia que ven como un gran avance la firma del acuerdo, debido a que se regula el relacionamiento entre actores, generando un marco a las relaciones laborales para la construcción de la planta.

Por su parte, según publicó Presidencia en su página web, el ministro de trabajo y seguridad social, Ernesto Murro afirmó que "este acuerdo es un paso trascendente e inédito en el país: por un lado, porque para la posible mayor inversión de la historia se prioriza la negociación colectiva previa entre el Gobierno, la empresa, las cámaras empresariales y el PIT-CNT formación de los trabajadores, convocatoria de trabajadores a través de registros públicos, elaboración conjunta de protocolos. Y por otro, porque se  establecen mecanismos de condiciones de trabajo y de seguridad y salud laboral, de actuación y prevención, coordinación con otros organismos e impactos multidimensionales en la zona, compromiso por el Trabajo Decente y los principios y derechos fundamentales de trabajadores y empleadores, comprendiendo empresas contratistas y subcontratistas, así como para generar condiciones para operar y producir en los plazos previstos".

Conclusiones

A modo de conclusión, podemos afirmar que ya sea en proyectos de pequeña o mediana dimensión, como en obras de tal magnitud como la de referencia, que se prevé que sea de las mayores de la historia de nuestro país, siempre resulta de buen proceder, tender a buscar soluciones que surjan del diálogo y la negociación. Como se puede observar, las características propias del sector, así como de las obras hacen posible la planificación a largo plazo, previendo instancias de participación de los involucrados en la toma de decisiones de los distintos procesos. Sin perjuicio de ello, es dable destacar que se buscó inclusive previo al comienzo de las obras buscar acercar a las partes interesadas para que juntos lleguen a las soluciones más adecuadas a las diferentes situaciones que se puedan plantear, delineando desde "el vamos" un plan de acción y estrategia, el cual entendemos que, de utilizarse de buena fe, facilitará los procesos y acelerará los tiempos usuales de este tipo de obras.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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