Uruguay: Los recursos tecnológicos propuestos al servicio de personas en situación de dependencia

Last Updated: 19 January 2017
Article by Galante & Martins

En el presente artículo nos referiremos a la Reglamentación de la Ley No. 19.353 del 19 de noviembre de 2015, que crea el Sistema Nacional Integrado de Cuidados (en adelante SNIC), en lo relativo a la creación y condiciones para la prestación de Servicios de Teleasistencia Domiciliaria.

Por Decreto No. 2712/2016, el Poder Ejecutivo actuando en Consejo de Ministros, en aplicación de las facultades que a tales efectos le otorga la Ley No. 19.353, procedió a la creación y reglamentación del Servicio de Teleasistencia Domiciliaria, como uno de los servicios y prestaciones que componen el SNIC.

La mencionada ley tiene como objetivo la promoción del desarrollo de la autonomía de las personas en situación de dependencia, mediante la aplicación de un conjunto de acciones y medidas orientadas al diseño e implementación de políticas públicas, a fin de promover un modelo solidario entre las familias, el Estado, la comunidad y el mercado, sobre la base del concepto de co-responsabilidad.

A fin de colaborar en la atención y asistencia de las personas alcanzadas por el Decreto 2712/2016, se crea en el ámbito de la Secretaría Nacional de Cuidados, el Servicio de Teleasistencia Domiciliaria, como una prestación social de naturaleza tecnológica, cuyo objetivo primordial es brindar apoyo y asistencia a personas en situación de emergencia, promoviendo la permanencia de las mismas en su medio habitual de vida.

El referido Decreto define en forma general, la Teleasistencia, como: "El servicio de apoyo basado en tecnologías de información y comunicación, que busca asegurar la recepción derivación inmediata y oportuna frente a necesidades que pueda experimentar una persona en su domicilio, que requiera una intervención de terceros y no pueda comunicarlas eficazmente por otro medio".

El Servicio de Teleasistencia Domiciliaria comprende tres posibles etapas: i) La relativa al suministro, instalación, y soporte técnico del equipamiento tecnológico ubicado en el domicilio de los usuarios y mediante el cual se hace efectivo el Servicio. ii) La referente al funcionamiento y mantenimiento del Centro de Atención de Usuarios/as, que tiene a su cargo la atención a distancia de los usuarios ante alarmas disparadas por los dispositivos ubicados en sus domicilios. iii) Por último, aquella consistente en la derivación oportuna a los recursos brindados por los usuarios o a los servicios públicos convenidos, frente a las necesidades que surjan.

Corresponde destacar que el servicio en cuestión, otorga un apoyo con soporte técnico que permite la comunicación con el Centro de Atención a Usuarios de modo ininterrumpido, las 24 horas del día, los 356 días del año, pero no otorga unidades móviles de respuesta a domicilio, ni sensores, así como tampoco sistemas de televigilancia a domicilio.

El Decreto también regula las condiciones que deben cumplir las personas que deseen ser usuarios del Servicio.

En concreto, se prevé que podrán ser beneficiarios aquellas personas en situación de dependencia leve o moderada, que tengan 14 años de edad o más, y que sean ciudadanos naturales o legales con 10 años de residencia. Están también establecidas las pautas para determinar el baremo de dependencia.

Como fuera señalado, la normativa en cuestión pretende priorizar la permanencia del individuo en su domicilio, evitando el desarraigo y los ingresos innecesarios en centros residenciales, es por ello que están excluidos del Servicio las personas que se encuentre en régimen de internación, en residencias para personas mayores, hospitales, establecimientos psiquiátricos u hogares de amparo.

Quienes tengan las condiciones para ser usuarios del Servicio, podrán acceder a la prestación del mismo mediante un proceso de postulación ante el Ministerio de Desarrollo Social, quien evaluará el grado de dependencia y el cumplimiento de los demás requisitos para el ingreso al sistema. Por otra parte, el grado de dependencia así como el subsidio otorgado, serán revisables de oficio por la Secretaría Nacional de Cuidados.

El subsidio podrá ser total o parcial y deberá ser destinado, en forma exclusiva, a la contratación de un Servicio de Teleasistencia Domiciliaria. Para la determinación de su monto, se tendrá en cuenta la capacidad de pago del hogar a que pertenece el usuario, contemplando todos los ingresos per cápita y el nivel y carga de cuidados asociados.

El monto del subsidio total asciende a 0,26 BPC más IVA, unos $ 868,4 al día de hoy (valor BPC año 2016). El mismo podrá incrementarse en caso de existir un segundo usuario, que pertenezca al mismo hogar, y que cumpla con los demás requisitos. En ese caso, se abonará un 20% más del subsidio asignado al primer usuario. Si los usuarios fueran 3 o más, el servicio será cubierto sin costo adicional.

Por su parte, el Banco de Previsión Social (BPS) en tanto organismo primordial en todo lo referido a la Seguridad Social, deberá registrar a las personas usuarias del Servicio, así como hacer efectivo el pago de los subsidios que se les fijen, para contribuir a solventar el acceso al Servicio de Teleasistencia Domiciliaria.

En relación a los prestadores del Servicio, se dispone que los mismos deberán organizarse bajo la forma de persona jurídica y obtener la debida habilitación. Se pone cargo de la Secretaría Nacional de Cuidados, el registro y habilitación de las personas jurídicas que presten ese servicio, de los que recibirá y registrará las postulaciones de aspirantes a ingresar al mismo.

La elección y contratación del prestador del Servicio será efectuada por el usuario, por sí o por sus representantes, mediante la suscripción de un modelo de contrato tipo a utilizar por la empresa, el que será previamente aprobado por la Secretaría Nacional de Cuidados. Dicha contratación se deberá comunicar al BPS dentro del plazo de 60 días, a contar desde el acceso al Registro de Empresas Prestadoras.

La normativa asimismo prevé que el contralor del Servicio estará a cargo del Ministerio de Desarrollo Social, y que en caso que se constataren irregularidades en la prestación del mismo, podrán formularse denuncias, sea por el usuario o sus representantes, ante la Secretaría Nacional de Cuidados.

Por último, se prevé el acceso al Servicio de Asistentes Personales del SNIC, para aquellos usuarios del de Teleasistencia Domiciliaria, cuya dependencia se considere severa.

En definitiva, puede concluirse que la aprobación del Decreto que viene de analizarse, se inserta dentro de una política general referida a la protección de los derechos de las personas dependientes por razón de discapacidad o edad, y pone al servicio de ese objetivo otro de los instrumentos que se han privilegiado en las políticas públicas, esto es, la utilización de los recurso tecnológicos.

Es por lo señalado que esta normativa podría ser considerada como emblemática de la coordinación entre distintas políticas públicas priorizadas, al tiempo de ser demostrativo de las bondades de la complementación entre objetivos sociales sustantivos y recursos tecnológicos.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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