Uruguay: Prevención De Riesgos Laborales. Análisis Normativo En La Industria, Comercio Y Los Servicios

Last Updated: 30 March 2016
Article by Jesus Ferreira Pozzi

En el presente trabajo nos proponemos a analizar la normativa vigente de la prevención de riesgos laborales en el sector de la industria, comercio y los servicios, desarrollando someramente los aspectos más importantes que toda empresa que desarrolle su actividad en este sector debe tener en cuenta.

I. INTRODUCCION

Para el desarrollo del presente trabajo nos basaremos casi en exclusividad al Decreto Nº 406/988 de3 de junio de 1988 (en adelante el Decreto), siendo la normativa vigente por excelencia en esta temática, sin perjuicio de indicar, en caso que corresponda, alguna referencia normativa que reforme la mencionada.

II. CONDICIONES GENERALES DE LOS EDIFICIOS Y LOCALES DE TRABAJO

El decreto mencionado ut-supra regula sobre la prevención de riesgos aplicable a todo establecimiento público o privado de naturaleza industrial, comercial o de servicios, cualquiera sea suactividad y la finalidad o no de lucro de la misma, ya sea al momento de la instalación, o en caso deampliación o reforma de las ya instaladas. Para las empresas ya instaladas se les otorgó un plazo deadecuación de seis meses a partir de la entrada en vigente de este decreto.

A grandes rasgos, se prevén las condiciones generales de los edificios y locales de trabajo como porejemplo aspectos relacionados a la seguridad estructural y de funcionamiento, otorgándole competencia a laInspección General del Trabajo y de la Seguridad Social para requerir, cuando lo estime conveniente, elinforme técnico sobre la resistencia de los edificios. Relacionado con ello, el Decreto es muy específico a lahora de establecer aspectos como la altura, cubaje y la superficie del local (arts. 3 y 4).

Por otra parte, se dedica un capítulo entero a la regulación especial de los locales Semisubterráneos ySubterráneos, mientras que en el capítulo IV regula lo relacionado a techos, pavimentos, paredes, aberturas yseparaciones, estableciendo una serie de requisitos que hagan al local apto para el desarrollo de las distintasactividades.

Respecto a los pasillos y zonas de paso regulado en el art. 10, el mismo fue actualizado por elDecreto Nº 474/009 el cual establece que "Los corredores y pasillos deberán tener un ancho adecuado alnúmero de personas que hayan de circular por ellos y a las necesidades propias del trabajo", enumerandoluego las exigencias mínimas.

El Decreto también hace hincapié en lo relativo a las escaleras fijas y de servicio, enumerando losrequisitos mínimos que deberán cumplir para que estén habilitadas para su uso.

La regulación es tan extensa como específica, lo cual hace materialmente imposible que en estetrabajo podamos hacer una mención completa de todo el articulado. Lo que sí es sumamente importante esque todo Técnico Prevencionista deberá observar cada uno de los requisitos establecidos en el presenteDecreto, a los efectos de prevenir como estudiar, en caso de algún accidente laboral, las responsabilidadesdel caso.

III. MEDIDAS PREVENTIVAS Y MEDIOS DE PROTECCION PERSONAL

Pero la normativa en estudio no se dedica exclusivamente a la determinación de requisitos mínimospara el establecimiento laboral y las herramientas de trabajo, sino que también regula la adopción de medidaspreventivas, aquellas específicas ante riesgos laborales en instalaciones, máquinas y equipos (Título III), yaquellas relativas a los riesgos químicos, físicos, biológicos y ergonómicos (Título IV).

Por su parte, también se enumeran los medios de protección pensados para la seguridad de la personadel trabajador, estableciéndose que para aquellos trabajos en los que se requieran medios de protección paradefender la salud del trabajador, "éstos serán de uso obligatorio y deberán ser provistos por el empleador, enforma gratuita, así como las instrucciones de uso y mantenimiento, debiendo proveer aquellos elementosnecesarios para los mismos. Estos medios de protección deben ser de uso individual y estarán marcados conel nombre o número del trabajador que habrá de usarlos. Quedan excluidos de esta exigencia, aquellosequipos de uso eventual o esporádico. El trabajador será responsable de los medios de protección personalque se le entreguen. Tanto en caso de extravío o pérdida, como el deterioro por uso indebido, el empleadorpodrá exigir la reposición al usuario" (Título V, art. 1). Esto es de suma importancia porque no soloestablece deberes para la parte empleadora, la empresa, sino también para el propio trabajador, haciéndoloresponsable por los medios de protección que se le entreguen y que en caso de extravío o pérdida, como eldeterioro por el uso indebido de los mismos, el empleador podrá exigirle su reposición.

El Decreto refiere fundamentalmente a la protección de la cabeza, ojos, oídos, manos, pies, protección respiratoria, cinturón de seguridad. Como disposición general de destaque, la norma referida establece el deber de los Capataces y todoaquél que tenga trabajadores bajo su dirección, de"ejercer una continua vigilancia sobre la obra de éstos, afin de que con su experiencia y prudencia puedan, en lo posible, conjurar y evitar los accidentes de trabajo".

IV. IMPORTANCIA DE LA NORMATIVA PREVENTIVA

Empleadores, trabajadores y el propio Estado tienen –además de imperativos morales– imperativos jurídicos y económicos en la materia. El Estado, porque además de tener la obligación constitucional de velarpor la seguridad de quienes aportan su capacidad de trabajo, tiene intereses económicos basados en larepercusión negativa en su patrimonio que causa cada siniestro. El empleador, debido a que además de tenerdeberes jurídicos a su cargo (llevar a la práctica medidas de prevención y seguridad prevista en las normas), el interés económico vinculados a la productividad laboral, sin perjuicio a los potenciales reclamos judiciales y administrativos por motivo del incumplimiento de las normas de seguridad laboral. Por último eltrabajador, debido a que son los principales interesados dado que estas normas procuran la protección de suseguridad y salud.

V. CONCLUSIONES

El análisis del multicitado decreto en el presente trabajo, más aquellos que regulan los sectores de laconstrucción como sector rural y actividad forestal al igual que el resto de los sectores, tienen evidentemente una importancia mayúscula en el desarrollo de las actividades laborales no solo en el Uruguay, sino en elmundo entero. La mención de los intereses de las partes involucradas en el Capítulo IV del presente trabajoes una clara muestra de ello.

En virtud de ello, y tal como ocurre en nuestro tema, surge la necesidad de que esta reglamentación sea lo más específica posible, que no deje nada al azar, dado que se trata nada más ni nada menos que valores jurídicos indeterminados protegidos por nuestra Carta Magna: la vida, salud y seguridad de las personas ensu más genérica expresión.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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