Uruguay: El Gobierno Promulgo Nueva Ley En El Marco De Su Política Anti-Alcohol

Last Updated: 17 February 2016
Article by Federico Caresani

El pasado 28 de diciembre de 2015 el Poder Ejecutivo promulgo la ley 19.360  que modifica dos artículos de la ley 18.191 (Ley de transito y seguridad vial), siendo su principal modificación que  la concentración de alcohol en sangre para los conductores de cualquier tipo de vehículo sin importar el tipo de libreta que posean pasa a ser cero. Esto se encuadra en el marco de su política anti alcohol que ha sido uno de los bastiones del actual gobierno. Cabe recordar que el Presidente ni bien asumió su segundo mandato dejó en claro que iba a "atacar" de raíz el problema del alcohol en la sociedad uruguaya; similar actitud de su primer mandato cuando ataco el tabaco con diversas reglamentaciones e impuestos que tienden a desestimular su consumo. 

En primer lugar consideramos importante destacar que como mencionáramos en el acápite de la presente nota el gobierno mediante diferentes medidas busca atacar de "raíz" el flagelo del alcohol en la sociedad uruguaya. Es así que conformó una comisión integrada por altos funcionarios gubernamentales y de los gremios de la bebida para determinar las acciones a seguir. A modo de ejemplo se busca desestimular la compra de alcohol en horarios nocturnos y por ende se prohíbe la venta del mismo en el horario de 22 a 8 horas con excepción de restaurantes, pubs y locales bailables. Es decir todas aquellas estaciones de servicio, mini mercados, supermercados, almacenes, etc. no podrán no solo vender al público en esa franja horaria sino que tampoco podrán enviar a domicilio bebidas alcohólicas. Asimismo se piensa desestimular el consumo con medidas de prevención, a través del aumento en el precio de las bebidas alcohólicas, el incremento de impuestos a las mismas, como se ha venido haciendo con el tabaco, limitación en los puestos de venta y sus horarios, etc. Otro tipo de limitación de tipo primaria o previa es prohibir la propaganda y publicidad de alcohol desestimulando la compra y enviando "mensajes subliminales" que prueben que el alcohol no es una "moda" sino que puede llegar a ser una enfermedad.

En segundo lugar encontramos otro tipo de medidas que buscan desestimular el consumo mediante programas de educación, concientización e información de los efectos y las consecuencias del alcohol,  intentando concientizar a la población de sus efectos nocivos para la salud, de gravedad del consumo en exceso y como afecta a toda la sociedad en su conjunto. Estas campañas serán llevadas adelante por los centros educativos e instituciones médicas. Es importante destacar que según informe del Ministerio de Salud Publica el consumo problemático de alcohol afecta a más de 250.000 uruguayos.

Enfocándonos más específicamente en el título de la presente nota debemos desarrollar de manera sintética la nueva ley (19.360) que fuera promulgada el pasado 28 de diciembre y que entró a regir en los últimos días. La misma consta únicamente de dos artículos; el primero deroga y modifica la redacción dada por el artículo 45 de la ley 18.191 (Ley de Transito y seguridad vial) y establece que la concentración de alcohol en sangre pasa de 0,3 a 0,0 gramos por litro; quedando su redacción de la siguiente forma: " Todo conductor estará inhabilitado para conducir vehículos de cualquier tipo o categoría, que se desplacen en la vía pública, cuando la concentración de alcohol en sangre o su equivalente en términos de espirometría sea superior a 0,0 gramos por litro". Cabe recordar al respecto que en la ley anterior a la 18.191 se había establecido el límite e tolerancia en 0,8 gramos por litro posteriormente se redujo a 0,5 después a 0,3 y en la nueva redacción a 0. El segundo artículo de la ley 19.163 derogo el artículo 47 de la ley 18.191 que preveía excepciones para conductores que tuvieran alcohol en sangre por agentes externos.

El principal motivo de estas modificaciones es que se quiere atacar el problema de raíz y sancionar a todas aquellas personas (sin importar si son conductores con libreta profesional o amateur) que opten por manejar una vez que hayan ingerido alcohol. Esta política gubernamental es impulsada no solo desde la Unidad Nacional de Seguridad Vial (UNASEV) sino que se enmarca en la misma política anti alcohol que mencionáramos antes. Los informes de la UNASEV indican que durante el primer semestre del año 2015 de los 9.000 controles realizados de espirometría de conductores que participaron en accidentes solo el 10% tenía alcohol en sangre lo que supone una reducción drástica de los niveles de años anteriores y por este motivo se quiere llegar al fondo del asunto con esta prohibición absoluta de conducir bajo efectos de alcohol en sangre. Los controles permitidos para determinar si se conduce bajo efectos de alcohol es la espirometría y en caso de accidentes o que hayan lesionados o a solicitud de alguno de los involucrados los exámenes de sangre.

Las sanciones a quienes conduzcan bajo efectos de alcohol son de varios tipos. La primera es de tipo administrativa como ser el retiro de la libreta y la suspensión de la habilitación de conducir por seis meses hasta una año dependiendo del grado de alcohol en sangre y en caso de reincidir puede inhabilitarse por dos años e incluso el retiro definitivo de la misma. Además existen sanciones de otro tipo como ser: a) la monetaria con multas que superan los $ 20.000, b) que la prestadora de seguros no cubra el riesgo c) sanción judicial mediante los juzgados de faltas que pueden aplicar medidas paliativas. Más allá de este tipo de sanciones debemos decir que la mayor gravedad de conducir bajo estos efectos son las consecuencias que puede acarrear hacia las terceras personas que son potenciales víctimas de accidentes fatales que es uno de las principales causas de muerte en Uruguay entre la población más joven y que en muchas casos son causados por conductores bajo los efectos del alcohol.

A modo de conclusión debemos decir que en estos tiempos modernos que corren en donde el consumo de alcohol afecta indiscriminadamente a sectores altos y bajos de la sociedad, adolescentes, jóvenes y mayores, creemos que es una medida acertada del gobierno atacar el problema de "raíz" con medidas como las que mencionáramos a lo largo del presente artículo. Entendemos que la prevención es la mejor herramienta para combatir el flagelo pero sin dudas además de prevenir hay que actuar directamente sobre el problema como se esta intentando hacer. El tiempo dirá si se consiguen los resultados buscados.

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