Argentina: Los diez desafíos principales al hacer negocios en Argentina

Last Updated: 18 December 2018
Article by TMF Group

La economía de Argentina floreció en 2017 y convirtió al país en la tercera economía más grande de Latinoamérica. Sin embargo, el país se encuentra hoy en una crisis financiera. La moneda local, el peso argentino, cayó drásticamente debido a la preocupación de los inversores sobre la habilidad del gobierno para controlar la inflación.

Actualmente, con la alta tasa de inflación, Argentina se ha convertido en un mercado más riesgoso. Los negocios que se expanden y se establecen en Argentina necesitan ayuda local a fin de navegar sin dificultades el diverso y complicado escenario.

1. Comenzar un negocio

El Banco Mundial y la Corporación Financiera Internacional ubicaron a la Argentina en la posición 117 de 190 países respecto de la facilidad para hacer negocios. Para comenzar un negocio en Argentina, son necesarios 13 procedimientos y un plazo de 24 días. Ello indica que Argentina está sobre el promedio que indica la OCDE (Organización para la Cooperación y Desarrollo Económicos) pero al mismo nivel que otros países en Latinoamérica y el Caribe.

2. Lidiar con permisos de construcción

Lidiar con los permisos de construcción es, considerablemente, la parte más complicada y prolongada de hacer negocios en Argentina. El proceso lleva 347 días y son necesarios 24 procedimientos que, en su mayoría, tienen costos asociados. Obtener un nuevo permiso para un proyecto de construcción y un certificado de evaluación de impacto ambiental lleva 150 días en total.

3. Obtener electricidad

Obtener la aprobación de los planes eléctricos de la municipalidad correspondiente, seguido de la presentación de un formulario de servicios de EDESUR, la distribuidora de energía argentina, y el tiempo de espera para la estimación de los costos de conexión, puede resultar una tarea desalentadora que puede llevar 45 días. Posteriormente, se necesitan 47 días más para realizar inspecciones y conexiones, lo cual hace que el proceso sea largo y complejo.

4. Registrar una propiedad

El registro de una propiedad requiere siete procedimientos y un promedio de 51 días y medio, lo cual significa que son necesarios 10 días menos que en otros países de Latinoamérica y el Caribe. Antes del comienzo del proceso, se deben obtener varios certificados: un certificado que detalle que no hay impuestos locales de la propiedad pendientes de pago, otro referido a la valuación fiscal denominado certificado catastral, un certificado de propiedad llamado certificado de dominio y un certificado de inhibiciones. Estos trámites agregan tiempo y costos al registro de propiedad en Argentina.

5. Obtener crédito

De acuerdo al Banco Mundial, Argentina se ubica en la posición 77 a nivel global respecto de la facilidad para obtener crédito, lo cual hace que sea uno de los procesos más simples en el país. No obstante, existen cuatro procedimientos complejos para navegar y el costo de obtener crédito puede resultar muy dificultoso.

6. Proteger a los inversores minoristas

La protección de los inversores no es algo en lo que Argentina se destaque pero su posición dentro del ránking está alineado con la mayoría de los países de Sudamérica.

7. Pagar impuestos

El pago de impuestos es un procedimiento complicado, con alrededor de nueve pagos por año y 311 horas y media de trabajo requerido. Argentina tiene impuestos muy elevados y un sistema impositivo complejo con impuestos que se superponen, lo que genera que el pago de impuestos sea una carga pesada para las compañías.

8. El comercio a través de las fronteras

El comercio exterior puede ser todo un desafío. El gobierno argentino se embarcó en un proceso progresivo de apertura comercial y realizó una serie de reformas económicas para promover nuevos acuerdos comerciales y optimizar el flujo comercial y la diversificación de los mercados de exportación e importación. Entre las medidas que se tomaron está la eliminación de tarifas a los productos tecnológicos. A pesar de estos esfuerzos, Argentina se mantiene como uno de los países más complejos en Latinoamérica para las relaciones comerciales.

9. Celebrar contratos

La celebración de contratos puede llevar hasta 995 días y 36 procedimientos, el segundo proceso más largo de Latinoamérica. Los trámites de presentación pueden tomar 90 días y el proceso judicial puede llevar 905 días.

10. Resolución de quiebra

La declaración de quiebra ante los tribunales puede llevar alrededor de 2 años y medio hasta la resolución de los activos afectados y puede costar un 16.5% de la propiedad.

TMF Group

Los expertos de TMF Argentina tienen el conocimiento local para ayudarlo a entender la inversión y operación de su negocio en el país. Si desea establecer su negocio en Argentina o quiere simplificar sus operaciones allí, contáctenos.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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