Argentina: La informalidad del empleo en Argentina: ¿motivará una reforma laboral?

Last Updated: 13 December 2017
Article by Hernán Kogan

En Argentina, el costo laboral excede ampliamente al salario que recibe el trabajador, superando esa relación a la de la mayoría de los países de la región. La situación genera disconformidad en empresarios y trabajadores, y alienta en ocasiones la informalidad de las relaciones laborales. El gobierno Argentino apunta a una reforma laboral para abordar este y otros temas, aunque probablemente no conforme las expectativas del empresariado.

Según el Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID), la mayor parte de los empleos en América Latina y el Caribe siguen siendo informal y altamente inestables. La situación es una reacción en cadena en la que la alta rotación desincentiva la formación y capacitación del trabajador, resultando en una baja productividad, lo que en relación con los costos de la formalidad, incide en una alta informalidad. Asimismo, la interpretación sesgada que hacen algunos tribunales sobre la legislación laboral (por ej.: ante desvinculaciones con justa causa), en ocasiones deriva en costos irracionales.

Por su parte, el costo por riesgos laborales ha aumentado de manera significativa en Argentina, básicamente a raíz del alto grado de litigiosidad relacionado a las indemnizaciones por enfermedad e incapacidad; el aumento de la cantidad de juicios iniciados por accidentes de trabajo, muy por encima de la siniestralidad laboral, es notable. Al respecto, el pasado marzo entró en vigencia la ley 27.348, que busca mejorar las condiciones laborales de los trabajadores y desarticular la judicialidad. Esta ley requiere la adhesión de las provincias para extender su impacto a todo el territorio nacional.

También resulta desafiante actualizar los salarios deteriorados por la inflación. En los últimos años, se han presentado situaciones en las que los empleados pertenecientes a convenios colectivos de trabajo han recibido incrementos salariales superiores a lo obtenido por el personal fuera de convenio. Ello podría agravarse en casos de mandos medios y altos alcanzados por el impuesto a las ganancias.

Generando empleos formales en Argentina

Paradójicamente, es la formalización del trabajo no registrado lo que mejoraría la sustentabilidad del sistema, permitiendo una disminución significativa de los sobrecostos.

Dentro del ámbito laboral actual en Argentina, es necesario adoptar medidas que generen más empleo sostenible y mejor empleabilidad. El costo laboral elevado afecta la competitividad internacional de las empresas, impidiendo vencer la informalidad que afecta a más de un tercio de los trabajadores en el país.

Según se ha reportado, la dificultad de generar empleos formales en Argentina está relacionada con la fuerte carga impositiva y el Gobierno actual no es indiferente a esta situación. El Ministerio de Economía ha reconocido que "los impuestos al trabajo frenan la creación de empleo".

Reforma laboral

Según el primer estudio económico multidimensional de Argentina elaborado por la Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo económico (OCDE), Argentina debe realizar mayores reformas que conllevarían beneficios sustanciales, aunque ya ha realizado algunas reformas muy importantes que indican que va en buen camino.

Una reforma laboral, específicamente, es uno de los temas que planteará el Gobierno a partir de las elecciones legislativas de octubre. Básicamente, las expectativas del empresariado argentino están enfocadas en una reducción de los aportes patronales, la descentralización de las negociaciones colectivas y la flexibilización de las condiciones de contratación y despido. Sin embargo, de acuerdo a circunstancias locales, resultaría difícil implementar cambios tan radicales en materia laboral como los introducidos recientemente en Brasil. Se plantea que los cambios más inmediatos estarían enfocados en facilitar la regularización de las relaciones laborales informales, por ejemplo, mediante esquemas de moratorias, lo que atacaría las consecuencias pero no las causas del sistema laboral vigente.

Si desea saber más acerca de las principales consideraciones que las compañías deben tener en cuenta sobre los recursos humanos y nómina, puede leer el siguiente artículo.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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