Argentina: Contratos De Participación Público - Privada

Last Updated: 9 December 2016
Article by M & M Bomchil

El pasado 30 de noviembre de 2016 el Poder Ejecutivo de la Nación promulgó la Ley 27.328 que regula los contratos de Participación Público - Privada (contratos PPP)

Se trata de una herramienta legal con la que se espera incentivar la inversión privada asociada con el Estado para el desarrollo de infraestructura pública, vivienda, inversión productiva, entre otros objetivos, generando un marco adecuado de protección al inversor e impulsando también la generación de empleo y la promoción directa e indirecta de las PyMES.

Los aspectos principales del marco legal recientemente aprobado son los siguientes:

Los contratos PPP se conciben como una modalidad alternativa a los contratos administrativos tradicionales previéndose expresamente que no se aplicarán a ellos las leyes de Obra Pública (N° 13.064), de Concesión de Obra Pública (N° 17.520), ni tampoco el Régimen General de Contrataciones Públicas (Decreto Delegado N° 1023/2001).

La ley prevé que se otorgue al contrato la flexibilidad necesaria para adaptarlo a las necesidades del proyecto y su financiamiento, debiendo fijarse un plazo que considere las inversiones comprometidas, el repago del financiamiento aplicado al proyecto y una utilidad razonable. El plazo máximo de los contratos PPP no podrá exceder de 35 años.

Se podrán estructurar a través de una sociedad existente, una sociedad de propósito específico o mediante fideicomisos financieros y otros tipos de vehículos o esquemas asociativos. Tanto las sociedades anónimas como los fideicomisos estarán habilitados para hacer oferta pública de sus valores negociables de conformidad con la ley de mercado de capitales nro. 26.831, a fin de mejorar sus medios de financiación.

Se habilita a que el contratista celebre préstamos con financistas, previendo que ante el incumplimiento del contratista se podrá transferir el control de la sociedad contratista (o del contrato) a favor del o los acreedor, con el fin de facilitar la reestructuración y asegurar la continuidad de las prestaciones ("step in rights"). Asimismo, se autoriza la posibilidad de ceder los derechos de cobro del contrato, así como de titularizar los flujos de fondos futuros.

De igual modo, se permite la cesión, total o parcial del contrato a un tercero que reúna similares condiciones que el cedente ante el 20% de la inversión comprometida o el plazo del contrato. Una vez aprobada la cesión, el cedente queda liberado de toda responsabilidad.

Se establece que en caso de extinción del contrato por razones de interés público, no aplicará ninguna norma que limite la responsabilidad del Estado. Asimismo, en casos de extinción anticipada por parte del contratante previo a la toma de posesión de los activos, se deberá abonar al contratista una compensación que nunca podrá ser menor a la inversión no amortizada, garantizando el repago del financiamiento.

Se prevé la afectación específica y/o transferencia de cualquier clase de ingreso público, el otorgamiento de cualquier instrumento que cumpla función de garantía, y se incluye la posibilidad de usar fideicomisos como mecanismo de garantía y/o pago de la contraprestación a cargo del ente contratante.

El procedimiento para la selección del contratista debe ser la licitación o concurso público, nacional o internacional. La ley exige como regla que el pliego prevea que los bienes y servicios que puedan ser objeto del contrato tengan un 33% de componente nacional, pudiendo el PEN excluir esta limitación fundadamente. Se incorporan normas de anticorrupción y transparencia aplicables al procedimiento.

Las controversias técnicas que surjan con motivo del contrato PPP podrán someterse a paneles técnicos. Asimismo las controversias relativas a la ejecución, aplicación e interpretación de los contratos podrán someterse a tribunales arbitrales. En caso de optarse por arbitraje con prórroga de jurisdicción, el PEN debe aprobar tal elección e informar al Congreso. En los arbitrajes con sede en Argentina, se excluye expresamente la revisión por tribunales locales del mérito del laudo arbitral (hechos y derecho aplicable), procediendo únicamente el recurso de nulidad del art. 760 del Código Procesal Civil y Comercial de la Nación.

Se excluye la prohibición de indexación prevista en la Ley de Convertibilidad Nro. 23.928. Además, las partes pueden acordar que los pagos se realicen en moneda extranjera y se excluye la aplicación del artículo 765 del Código Civil y Comercial.

La ley crea la Unidad de Participación Público Privada, bajo jurisdicción del Poder Ejecutivo Nacional, como órgano de centralización normativa, publicidad, asesoramiento y asistencia en todo lo relativo a los contratos PPP y una Comisión Bicameral en el ámbito del Congreso de la Nación, para el seguimiento de todo lo concerniente a estos proyectos.

Finalmente, la ley invita a las provincias y a la Ciudad A. de Buenos Aires a adherir al régimen.

Para acceder al texto de la ley, haga click aquí.

Para imprimir esta publicación, haga click aquí.

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