Argentina: La Suspensión De La Prescripción Por La Mediación En La Ciudad Autónoma De Buenos Aires Y Provincia De Buenos Aires. Impacto Del Código Civil Y Comercial

Last Updated: 19 April 2017
Article by Javier Santiere

El Código Civil y Comercial de la Nación ha introducido cambios en materia de suspensión del curso de prescripción provocada por este procedimiento prejudicial. Nos interesa destacar si ha impactado en las normas vigentes en ambas jurisdicciones y su incidencia respecto de la oportunidad de la baja del caso en el registro de actuaciones judiciales de las Aseguradoras.

Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires

El Código Civil y Comercial de la Nación no distingue entre la mediación denominada pública y la privada. Esta falta de diferenciación no contempla, entonces, el distinto tratamiento que la Ley de Mediaciones tiene respecto del inicio del cómputo de la suspensión del curso de la prescripción.

Recordemos que, al igual que lo que establece la Ley de mediaciones para el supuesto de las privadas, el Código únicamente dispone que la suspensión operará desde la expedición por medio fehaciente de la comunicación de la fecha de la audiencia de mediación o desde su celebración, lo que ocurra primero. Ahora bien, nada dice respecto de las públicas sobre esta cuestión.

Esta diferencia entre el régimen especial vigente y la Ley posterior, pero de carácter general, podría generar controversias interpretativas.

La solución vendría dada por el artículo 2.532 del Código Civil y Comercial de la Nación al indicar que "En ausencia de disposiciones específicas, las normas de este Capítulo son aplicables a la prescripción adquisitiva y liberatoria...". Como vimos, en este caso existe una disposición específica para las mediaciones públicas de una norma especial que mantendría su vigencia.

En conclusión, tal diferencia no tendría impacto respecto del régimen local vigente.

De igual forma, tampoco observamos que las disposiciones del Código tengan impacto con relación a los demás puntos relevantes vinculados con el tema propuesto en este trabajo (efecto suspensivo de la mediación, plazo de la suspensión y límite temporal).

Provincia de Buenos Aires

Respecto del régimen vigente en esta jurisdicción, consideramos que el Código Civil y Comercial de la Nación ha introducido modificaciones a la Ley local respecto de los siguientes puntos:

Inicio del Cómputo de la suspensión

La Ley provincial 13.951 no disponía específicamente desde qué momento debía computarse el inicio del plazo de suspensión del curso de la prescripción, lo que fue materia de regulación por intermedio de su Decreto Reglamentario 2530/10.

Sin embargo, considerando una cuestión de jerarquía normativa, prevalece lo dispuesto por la Ley de fondo, o sea, por el Código Civil y Comercial de la Nación.

En consecuencia, la suspensión operará desde la expedición por medio fehaciente de la comunicación de la fecha de la audiencia de mediación o desde su celebración, lo que ocurra primero.

Plazo de la suspensión

Por lo dispuesto en el artículo 40 de la Ley de Mediaciones provincial, el curso de la prescripción se suspendía por el término de 1 (un) año; en virtud de su remisión al artículo 3.986, segundo párrafo, del viejo Código Civil de la Nación (hoy derogado).

En consecuencia, encontrándose derogado el artículo del anterior Código Civil al que remitía la Ley local, consideramos aplicable, desde la entrada en vigencia del nuevo Código, lo establecido por este último en su artículo 2.542, o sea, que el curso de la prescripción se suspende durante la etapa de mediación y se reanuda a partir de los 20 días contados desde el momento en que el acta de cierre del procedimiento de mediación se encuentre disponible para las partes.

Registración de las mediaciones. Baja por prescripción

De conformidad con lo establecido en el Reglamento General de la Actividad Aseguradora, según texto Resolución SSN 38.708/2014; la valuación de las mediaciones debe mantenerse hasta su pago, transformación en juicio o la prescripción de la acción.

En el caso de que no se realizara el pago de la obligación reclamada o que no se recibiera notificación con el traslado de la demanda o citación en garantía, según el caso; al Entidad Aseguradora deberá mantener constituida una reserva o pasivo, cuya determinación establece el reglamento, que irá decreciendo en función del paso del tiempo, computado desde la fecha de registración de la mediación en el libro de Actuaciones Judiciales y/o Mediaciones y sólo podrá darla de baja al producirse la prescripción.

En atención a ello, resulta de suma relevancia considerar especialmente las modificaciones introducidas por el nuevo Código Civil y Comercial de la Nación en materia de prescripción, de la suspensión de su curso por mediación y tener presente los plazos de la prescripción liberatoria con relación a las distintas acciones y, en particular, aquellas que generan mayor litigiosidad.

Entre estas últimas podemos mencionar el reclamo de indemnización de daños derivados de la responsabilidad civil que el Código modifica estableciendo un plazo de 3 (tres) años y el plazo de prescripción de 1 (un) año de las acciones fundadas en el contrato de seguro conforme la Ley 17.418, cuya vigencia en este punto queda ratificada por los artículos 2.532 y 2.560 del Código Civil y Comercial de la Nación al establecer la prevalencia de los plazos de prescripción que fijen las disposiciones específicas o la legislación local.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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