Here are some tips for avoiding ethical issues and the possibility of sanctions in connection with depositions.

Most experienced litigators have at least one horror story of a deposition that went poorly. It usually starts with an opposing attorney with an ax to grind or one that is determined to prove to their client that they are an especially "zealous advocate." However, attorneys can forget that, although depositions may be held in informal settings, the rules of decorum and professionalism still apply in full force.

Courts will not hesitate to sanction attorneys who engage in conduct during depositions that would never be tolerated in the courtroom. In particular, as reflected by a number of recent decisions in California, courts do not look kindly upon conduct that demonstrates a lack of respect for opposing counsel.

For example, in Claypole v. County of Monterey, No. 14-CV-02730-BLF at *4 (N.D. Cal. Jan. 12, 2016), the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California sanctioned an attorney for advising opposing counsel that she should not raise her voice because "it's not becoming of a woman or an attorney who is acting professionally under the rules of professional responsibility."

While it is perhaps unsurprising that such an obviously sexist remark drew the court's ire, other courts have imposed sanctions for "snarky" comments that may be somewhat commonplace in heated depositions but nonetheless are viewed by courts as being inconsistent with the level of civility expected from attorneys. In Lucas v. Breg, No. 3:15-CV-00258-BAS-NLS, at *2 (S.D. Cal. May 13, 2016), the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of California sanctioned an attorney for statements to opposing counsel during a deposition such as "shame on you," "you know, someone apparently didn't fill you in on who you're dealing with here," and "it appears you might be hallucinating by positing the possibility that the defendants are going to win this lawsuit."

The resulting sanctions for such conduct can be severe and could  include an order requiring payment of opposing counsel's fees or a monetary fine. For more severe conduct, a bar grievance may be possible. Below are some tips for avoiding ethical issues and the possibility of sanctions in connection with depositions.

Encourage Your Witness to Tell the Truth

A common source for the types of disputes that can lead to sanctions is an attorney's improper preparation of the witness for the deposition. While preparing the witness for questions that will likely be asked during a deposition is certainly important, most attorneys recognize that "coaching" the witness is inappropriate.

Specifically, preparation that arguably assists the witness in fabricating responses to anticipated questions or implicitly suggests that the witness withhold or alter the truth may violate Rule 3.3 of the California Rules of Professional Conduct. This rule, which will become effective on Nov. 1 as part of the extensive revisions to the California Rules of Professional Conduct, provides that   a "lawyer shall not ... offer evidence that the lawyer knows to be false." Moreover, "if a lawyer, the lawyer's client, or a witness called by the lawyer, has offered material evidence, and the lawyer comes to know of its falsity, the lawyer shall take reasonable remedial measures, including, if necessary, disclosure to the tribunal," unless disclosure would violate the lawyer's duty to maintain confidentiality. The comments further specify that Rule 3.3 applies in ancillary proceedings, such as a deposition.

Accordingly, any coaching that crosses the line to the point where the attorney either advises the client to testify falsely or otherwise fails to dissuade the client from doing so may implicate Rule 3.3, depending on the circumstances.

Pay Attention to The Rules

Although uncivil conduct is generally regarded as wholly inappropriate in every court, jurisdictions can vary regarding whether a host of other conduct is permitted during a deposition. For example, the issue of whether an attorney can confer with the deponent can be a gray area, and some courts refuse to permit such conferences while a question is pending.

For guidance, attorneys can check their rules of civil procedure, local rules, or standing orders to confirm appropriate deposition conduct. For example, one of the most common issues is the use of "speaking objections," which can be used to coach the deponent on how to answer certain questions or to provide information that essentially amounts to testimony being provided by the defending attorney.

Such objections are generally improper in federal courts, as Federal Rule of Civil Procedure Rule 30(c)(2) provides that "an objection must be stated concisely in a nonargumentative and nonsuggestive manner." State courts often similarly prohibit objections that go beyond simply stating the basis for the objection.

Another issue that might be addressed in the local rules (and that can lead to disputes) is the circumstances upon which an attorney may instruct the client not to answer a question. The most common basis for an instruction to the client not to answer is where the question seeks privileged information. However, there can be some variation as to other circumstances that may justify an instruction not to answer. For example, in addition to permitting instructions not to answer where privileged information is sought, the Los Angeles Superior Court's "Guidelines for Civility in Litigation" provide that such an instruction can be made where the question is "manifestly irrelevant or calculated to harass."

It is also important to remember that, even where an instruction not to answer is based on a privilege claim, the deponent may be required to answer questions relevant to the existence, extent, or waiver of the privilege, such as the date of the communication, who made the statement, to whom and in whose presence the statement was made, other persons to whom the contents of the statement have been disclosed, and the general subject matter of the statement, unless such information itself is privileged.

Even despite rules clearly prohibiting certain conduct at depositions, too many attorneys believe that the rules are merely "suggestions" or that there will be no adverse consequences to pushing the limit. However, as reflected by recent cases, attorneys that flout the rules do so at their own risk.

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