An industry must have a minimum of five company participants to be calculated. For all reported multiples in Europe, the average number of companies in the calculation sample was 90 and the median number of companies in the calculation sample was 39. Sample set includes publicly-traded companies (private companies are not included). Source: Data derived from Standard & Poor's Capital IQ databases. Reported multiples are median ratios (excluding negatives or certain outliers). MVIC = Market Value of Invested Capital = Market Value of Equity plus Book Value of Debt. EBIT = Earnings Before Interest and Taxes for latest 12 months. EBITDA = Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Deprecia¬tion and Amortization for latest 12 months. Note that due to the exclusion of negative multiples from the analysis, the number of companies used in the computation of each of the three reported multiples across the same industry may differ, which may occasionally result in a counterintuitive relationship between those multiples (e.g. the MVIC-to-EBITDA multiple may exceed MVIC to EBIT).
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