A. What is TRABIS?

".tr" Network Information System ("TRABIS") is the platform that enables the operation of the ".tr" internet domain name system and its central database, the creation and updating of the directory, the guidance services and the real-time execution of domain name application procedures, all of which are carried out securely and sustainably.

B. Management of ".tr" domain names before the TRABIS period and transition to the TRABIS period

Before TRABIS started its operations, Middle East Technical University ("METU") managed the procedures for the allocation and administration of ".tr" domain names via nic.tr with the international authority received from IANA/ICANN in 1991. In fact, during the period between 1991 and 1998, policies and procedures required for ".tr" domain name transactions were established and implemented by METU- Department of Information Technologies. Since 1998, domain name allocations as well as support and consultancy services have been provided by nic. tr in the METU - Informatics Institute building. Within the scope of the existing rules, nic.tr has been providing support via call center, message and email for domain name applications of all domestic/foreign institutions, organizations and individuals, finalizing allocations of appropriate applications and performing administrative, financial and technical transactions regarding the existing domain names.

In accordance with Electronic Communications Law No. 5809 published in 2008, the Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure assigned the Information Technologies and Communications Authority ("ITCA") for the allocation and management of ".tr" domain names. METU and ITCA signed a protocol on 21 December 2018, by which METU transferred its ".tr" domain name management and registration authority to ITCA. Accordingly, within the scope of the Internet Domain Names Regulation ("IDN Regulation") No. 27752 published in the Official Gazette dated 7 November 2010, it was announced that all transactions regarding ".tr" domain names would now be carried out through the TRABIS platform, but the enforcement of numerous articles of the IDN Regulation was postponed until TRABIS became operational. Following the agreement dated December 2018, in which METU transferred all of its authority regarding the management and allocation of ".tr" domain names to ITCA, it was envisaged the nic.tr platform would shut down in August 2020 and TRABIS would start operating, but the transition could not be completed at the proposed time.

Following this, TRABIS commenced its operations on 14 September 2022, as announced by the ITCA. The articles of the IDN Regulation whose enforcement had been postponed until TRABIS became operational entered into force on the same day TRABIS started operating.

C. Main differences between the rules applicable during the TRABIS period and the rules applied during the nic.tr period



The rules published by METU have been applied regarding allocation, management and administration of ".tr" domain names. The set of rules issued by METU during the nic.tr period has been replaced by regulations such as the IDN Regulation, Internet Domain Names Communiqué ("IDN Communiqué") and Internet Domain Names Dispute Resolution Mechanism Communiqué ("IDN Dispute Resolution Communiqué").
Allocation of ".tr" domain names has been conducted through the submission of the relevant documents. In other words, for real or legal persons to have a ".tr" domain name allocated to their own names, they had to apply by documenting a trademark right or trade name that constitutes the basis for the relevant domain name. As a rule, ".tr" domain names are allocated without documentation (i.e., without ownership proof). Accordingly, the "first come, first served" principle will be practiced, except for the domain names specifically indicated in the IDN Regulation.
During the nic.tr period, the dispute resolution mechanism for disputes regarding ".tr" domain names was developed by the "DNS Working Group". In accordance with the relevant provisions of the IDN Regulation and the IDN Dispute Resolution Communiqué, disputes regarding ".tr" domain names can be handled by "Dispute Resolution Service Providers" ("DRSPs").
During the nic.tr period, "registration operators" mediated in transactions of internet domain name holders with nic.tr. Under the IDN Regulation, transactions regarding ".tr" domain names are carried out via TRABIS through "Domain Registrars" ("DRs").
During the nic.tr period, it was not admissible to sell and transfer ".tr" domain names. For the period of three years from the beginning of TRABIS' operation, ".tr" domain names can be transferred if certain conditions are met; however, it is not possible to conduct sales of ".tr" domain names during this period. After the completion of this three-year period, sales of ".tr" domain names will be conducted without any limitations.

D. Basic concepts and abbreviations introduced along with the operation of TRABIS

Along with TRABIS' operation, radical changes have been introduced regarding the management and administration of ".tr" domain names. A considerable amount of terms and abbreviations that were used during nic.tr's operation period have also been changed or updated. In accordance with the IDN Regulation, IDN Communiqué and IDN Dispute Resolution Communiqué, the TRABIS period introduces the following terminology and abbreviations:

  • Domain Name: This term refers to the ".tr" internet domain name.
  • Internet Domain Name ("IDN"): This term describes the names that define the internet protocol address used to determine the address of computers or internet sites.
  • Internet Domain Name System: This term refers to the system that finds the corresponding internet protocol address and presents it to the user using symbolic names that are easy to read and remember and can generally be associated with the address owners.
  • Internet Protocol Address: This term refers to the address given according to the internet protocol standards that devices connected to a certain network use for recognizing each other, communication and data exchange.
  • Internet Domain Name Owner ("IDNO"): This term refers to the concept that indicates the domain name holder.
  • Domain Registrar ("DR"): This term refers to the party mediating the transactions related to domain names, especially application, renewal and cancellation. METUnic operates as a DR that has completed the TRABIS accreditation.
  • Domain Name Allocation: This is conducted in two ways: documented (i.e., with ownership proof) and undocumented (i.e., without ownership proof). Undocumented domain name allocation is operated according to the "first come, first served" principle, and determination of who came first is based on when the application was received by TRABIS. Allocation of documented domain names is realized upon submission of the documents to be announced. All documents and applications are evaluated by TRABIS, and DRs are not authorized to be part of the document evaluation processes. A domain name can be allocated for a period of at least one and at most five years.
  • Information Technologies and Communications Authority ("ITCA"): This term refers to the independent administrative authority that regulates and supervises Türkiye's telecommunication sector. ITCA is authorized to make the necessary arrangements in accordance with the legal legislation, to audit DRs and those authorized as DRSPs, and to impose necessary administrative sanctions, including termination of their activities.
  • The List of Domain Names Restricted to Allocation ("DNRA List"): This term refers to the list of domain names whose allocation is restricted by the registration authority for various reasons and for which a document can be requested during the application. The DNRA List consists of names such as historically and culturally significant names, city names, and bank, finance, and ministry names to discourage the allocation of fake IDNs containing the names of financial and government institutions that may be used to deceive internet users.
  • The List of Domain Names Closed to Allocation ("DNCA List"): This term refers to the list of domain names that are not permitted for allocation by the registration authority due to reasons such as being contrary to legislation, public order and public morality. IDNs that are contrary to legislation, public order, national security, public morality, public health and safety are included within the scope of DNCA List.
  • Transfer Between Domain Registrars: This term refers to the process called "Change of Responsible Person" during the nic.tr period and the transfer of a domain name recorded at a different DR to a panel in METUnic with a transfer code.
  • Dispute Resolution Service Provider ("DRSP"): This term refers to the parties that carry out the dispute resolution process regarding domain names through arbitrators or arbitration committees.
  • Waiver: This term refers to the process called "Deletion" during the operational period of nic. tr. If the registrant wishes to terminate the use before the domain name expires, the waiver process is carried out. The domain name owner waives all rights by requesting the deletion of the relevant domain name with this process.
  • Cancellation: This term refers to the cancellation process that can be completed by informing the domain name owner and METUnic, and the domain name allocation can be canceled via TRABIS.
  • Renewal: This is the process of extending the ownership of an already existing domain name by making a payment. METUnic notifies the domain name owner via email at least three months before the domain name allocation period ends, and the domain name owner is requested to perform the renewal process.
  • Sale: Although it is a transaction that was not allowed during nic.tr's operational period, the commencement of the TRABIS period will mean this transaction can be performed. However, sale of domain names will only be possible three years after TRABIS becomes operational.
  • Transfer: This term refers to another transaction that was not permitted under nic.tr's operational period; however, transfer of domain names is enabled upon commencement of the TRABIS period.

E. Transactions that can be conducted for management and administration of ".tr" domain names during the TRABIS period

During the TRABIS period, the main transactions that ".tr" domain names can be subject to are as follows:

  • Domain name application
  • Domain name allocation
  • Renewal of a domain name
  • Waiver of a domain name
  • Cancellation of a domain name
  • Reallocation of a domain name
  • Sale of a domain name
  • Transfer of a domain name
  1. Domain name application
    • Who can file an application?
      Real or legal persons who wish to own a ".tr" domain name can file an application. In fact, real and legal persons are allowed to apply for more than one domain name.

    • How is an application filed?
      Real or legal persons who wish to own a ".tr" domain name are required to choose one of the DRs listed on the ITCA's website for domain name application. Real and legal persons can apply by filling in the application form on the website of their preferred DRs. The relevant DR performs the necessary procedures through TRABIS after receiving the domain name application request. Please note that in order for the domain name application to be accepted, the application form must be filled in completely and accurately; otherwise, the application will not be accepted.
  2. . Domain name allocation
    • What is the procedure to be followed for domain name allocation?
      Pursuant to the IDN Regulation, ".tr" domain name allocations are made in two ways: undocumented (i.e., without ownership proof) or documented (i.e., with ownership proof):

    • Undocumented domain name allocation: Under the IDN Regulation, ".tr" domain names are allocated undocumented as a rule. In undocumented domain name allocations, the "first come, first served" principle applies and for determination of who came first, the time recorded when the domain name application was received by TRABIS is taken into account. In other words, whichever application for allocation of a ".tr" domain name TRABIS receives first will be taken into consideration in the process of allocation.
    • Documented domain name allocation: Documented domain name allocations are defined as allocations made after the relevant information and/or documents are provided to the DRs by the applicant and this information and/or documents are delivered to TRABIS.

The list of ".tr" domain names that can be allocated as documented is set out in the annex of the IDN Regulation. These domain names can only be allocated in the name of certain persons, institutions, organizations or parties, and the applicants for these domain names are required to document that they can have the domain name allocated in their name. The domain names that can be allocated with a document are listed below:



".av" Lawyers, law firms and law partnerships
".bel" Municipalities in the records of the Ministry of Interior
".dr" Medical doctors and doctor partnerships
".edu" Higher education institutions recognized by the Council of Higher Education ("CHE")
".gov" Public institutions and organizations
".pol" General Directorate of Security and its units
".k12" Ministry of National Education ("MoNE"), preschool, primary and high school, and equivalent education institutions affiliated to or approved by the MoNE, and institutions such as private nurseries, daycare centers, private children's clubs approved by the Ministry of Family, Labor and Social Services within the scope of the relevant legislation
".tsk" Units within the Turkish Armed Forces
".kep" Registered Electronic Mail Service Providers authorized by the ITCA

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The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.