Worldwide: Vergleich der Antikorruptionsgesetzgebungen Russlands und anderer ehemaliger Sowjetrepubliken - Aserbaidschan, Kasachstan, Kirgistan, Turkmenistan und Usbekistan

Last Updated: 16 July 2019
Article by Hannes Lubitzsch and Anna Fufurina

Ermittlungsverfahren von US-amerikanischen und europäischen Strafverfolgungsbehörden sowie der Weltbank haben den Blick auf von internationalen Unternehmen in Russland und anderen ehemaligen Sowjetrepubliken, insbesondere in Zentralasien, verwirklichte Bestechungsdelikte gelenkt. Zusammen mit lokalen Kanzleien haben wir daher die Antikorruptionsgesetzgebungen Russlands, Aserbaidschans, Kasachstans, Kirgistans, Turkmenistans und Usbekistans einer näheren Betrachtung unterzogen. Die dabei festgestellten erheblichen Unterschiede in den Gesetzgebungen dieser Länder zeigen, dass die lokalen Haftungsrisiken für dort tätige Unternehmen und ihre Mitarbeiter für jede Jurisdiktion gesondert zu bewerten sind:

  • Nur Russland, Aserbaidschan und Kirgistan bestrafen auch Unternehmen für die Bestechung von Amtsträgern sowie Bestechung im Geschäftsverkehr. In Kasachstan haften Unternehmen nur bei der Bestechung von Amtsträgern. Keine Unternehmenshaftung für Bestechung gibt es in Turkmenistan und Usbekistan.
  • In allen Ländern haften Unternehmensmitarbeiter für die Bestechung von Amtsträgern unabhängig von ihrer Position im Unternehmen. Bei der Bestechung im Geschäftsverkehr jedoch werden in Russland, Kasachstan und Turkmenistan nur mit Leitungsfunktionen betraute Mitarbeiter bestraft.
  • Ausländische Personen haften für die im jeweiligen Land verwirklichten Bestechungsdelikte wie inländische Personen. Von ausländischen Personen im Ausland begangene Bestechungsdelikte können, unter bestimmten Bedingungen, in allen Ländern außer Kirgistan verfolgt werden.
  • Nur in Russland drohen wegen Bestechung verurteilten Unternehmen empfindliche Strafzahlungen – bis zum Hundertfachen des Betrags der Bestechungssumme. Mitarbeiter dagegen können in allen Ländern mit einschneidenden Strafen belegt werden – einschließlich mehrjährigen Freiheitsentzugs.
  • In Russland, Kasachstan und Usbekistan sind Unternehmen dazu verpflichtet, Maßnahmen zur Korruptionsbekämpfung zu ergreifen. Nur in Russland jedoch können sich Unternehmen auf die Umsetzung dieser Maßnahmen auch berufen, um von der Haftung für Bestechung befreit zu werden.
  • In allen Ländern können sich natürliche Personen, die Bestechungsgelder gezahlt haben, durch Selbstanzeige bei den lokalen Strafverfolgungsbehörden von der Haftung befreien. Nur Russland und Aserbaidschan bieten auch Unternehmen die Möglichkeit der strafbefreienden Selbstanzeige von Bestechungsdelikten.
  • In Aserbaidschan, Kasachstan, Kirgistan und Usbekistan wurden verschiedene Bestimmungen zum Schutz von Whistleblowern bei Korruptionsdelikten eingeführt. Kasachstan und Kirgistan zahlen Whistleblowern sogar Geld als Anreiz für entsprechende Meldungen.
  • Außer Usbekistan kennen alle Länder Hospitality-Beschränkungen im Umgang mit Amtsträgern. Russland, Kirgistan und Turkmenistan beschränken zudem Geschenke in Beziehungen zwischen gewerblichen Organisationen.

Weitere Einzelheiten finden sich in der angefügten Übersicht.

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