1 Overview

1.1 What are the main trends/significant developments in the lending markets in your jurisdiction?

The Cayman Islands continues to be a jurisdiction of choice for the establishment of investment funds, portfolio investment companies and corporate vehicles, each of which utilise secured lending arrangements in a variety of forms. We have seen a significant uptick in the use of investment fund holding entities structured as orphan vehicles as lenders are looking to address US bankruptcy concerns. The robust and creditor-friendly legislation in the Cayman Islands provides counterparties with significant comfort in secured lending transactions, which continues to make the Cayman Islands the jurisdiction of choice for many financial institutions. We continue to see an increase in the use of hybrid and NAV facilities in both the private equity and hedge fund space. Exempted companies and exempted limited partnerships are still the most popular entities across all business areas, but we also see an increasing use of limited liability companies as a result of advantageous hybrid features taken from both the company and exempted limited partnership regimes.

The global regulatory shift has enforced the position that the Cayman Islands is a leading, well-respected and relied upon jurisdiction for many lending houses and financial institutions in all fund financing and secured lending transactions.

1.2 What are some significant lending transactions that have taken place in your jurisdiction in recent years?

The most significant lending transactions continue to occur in the investment funds space, especially to Cayman Islands domiciled private equity funds. These transactions tend to be governed by New York and English law finance documents with security taken over Cayman Islands assets being governed by both Cayman Islands law and non-Cayman Islands law. Although the courts in the Cayman Islands generally recognise foreign law documents, lenders often prefer, for commercial purposes, to have dual Cayman Islands law-governed security.

The main types of security are, in the case of funds established in the form of exempted limited partnerships, exempted companies and limited liability companies, security over capital calls (the right to call such capital and the right to receive the proceeds of such calls) and, more generally, security over Cayman Islands equity interests, either in the form of registered shares or exempted limited partnership interests. This is particularly common where there is a "master-feeder" structure or underlying blocker entities are used to hold assets and those structures are looking to utilise subscription and hybrid facilities.

2 Guarantees

2.1 Can a company guarantee borrowings of one or more other members of its corporate group (see below for questions relating to fraudulent transfer/financial assistance)?

Yes, a company can grant a guarantee in these circumstances assuming there is sufficient commercial rationale and benefit to the company.

2.2 Are there enforceability or other concerns (such as director liability) if only a disproportionately small (or no) benefit to the guaranteeing/securing company can be shown?

The directors of the company providing a guarantee must ensure that any proposed transaction is in the best interests of the company as a whole. Guarantee arrangements may be construed as not being in the best interests of a company (and not for the company's corporate benefit) if the granting company receives no commercial benefit from the underlying financing arrangements.

The directors of the company giving the guarantee should approve the terms and execution of the guarantee by way of board resolution in accordance with the company's articles of association. If there is any question of lack of corporate benefit or a potential breach of director's duties, it is recommended that the company also obtain a shareholders' resolution approving the grant of the guarantee.

2.3 Is lack of corporate power an issue?

In accordance with the Companies Act (2021 Revision) ("Companies Act"), the lack of capacity of a company to enter into a transaction by reason of anything in the company's memorandum will not affect the validity of the transaction. However, where the company is acting without the necessary capacity, shareholders may issue proceedings prohibiting the company from performing its obligations under the transaction (including disposing of any property) and proceedings may be brought against present and past directors or officers of the company for loss or damage caused by them binding the company in this manner, contrary to the objects in the memorandum.

If a shareholder brings proceedings to restrict the company from performing its obligations, we believe such action would not affect the other party's rights under the transaction. If the company fails to perform, the other party would have the usual remedies.

2.4 Are any governmental or other consents or filings, or other formalities (such as shareholder approval), required?

Subject to any licensing restrictions that may apply to a regulated entity, no authorisations or consents are required by law from any governmental authorities or agencies or other official bodies in the Cayman Islands in connection with the grant of a guarantee. In addition, it is not necessary to ensure the enforceability or admissibility in evidence of a guarantee that any document be filed, recorded or enrolled with any governmental authority or agency or any official body in the Cayman Islands.

The directors of the company giving the guarantee should approve the terms and execution of the guarantee by way of board resolution in accordance with the company's articles of association. If there is any question of lack of corporate benefit or a potential breach of director's duties, it is recommended that the company also obtain a shareholders' resolution also approving the grant of the guarantee.

2.5 Are net worth, solvency or similar limitations imposed on the amount of a guarantee?

There are no legislative restrictions imposed on the amount of any guarantee due to net worth or the solvency of a company. However, the directors of a company should, as part of fulfilling their fiduciary duties, consider the terms of any guarantee, particularly in the context of the company's asset base.

2.6 Are there any exchange control or similar obstacles to enforcement of a guarantee?

There are no exchange control regulations imposed under Cayman Islands law that would act as an obstacle to enforcement of a guarantee.

3 Collateral Security

3.1 What types of collateral are available to secure lending obligations?

There are no legislative restrictions on the form of collateral and, accordingly, all property of a company is potentially available as security for lending obligations.

3.2 Is it possible to give asset security by means of a general security agreement or is an agreement required in relation to each type of asset? Briefly, what is the procedure?

It is possible for security to be taken by means of a general security agreement, such as a debenture, over a range of asset types. The main types of security under Cayman Islands law are mortgages (legal and equitable), charges (fixed and floating), liens and assignments of rights by way of security (albeit that this is deemed to be a form of mortgage). Formalities and perfection of such security interests will depend upon the nature of the underlying collateral and the applicable lex situs of such collateral.

Special regimes apply to the taking of security over certain assets, including ships, aircraft and land.

3.3 Can collateral security be taken over real property (land), plant, machinery and equipment? Briefly, what is the procedure?

Security over land is usually granted by way of legal or equitable mortgage and by way of fixed charge over plant, machinery and equipment. In relation to chattels, security can also be created by a conditional bill of sale, which must be recorded in accordance with the Bills of Sale Act (2016 Revision).

A legal mortgage is granted by execution of a mortgage agreement between the mortgagor and the secured creditor. The terms of the mortgage will vary, but essentially a mortgage (i) requires transfer of legal title in the land to the secured creditor, subject to a requirement to re-transfer the land upon satisfaction of the underlying secured obligations, and (ii) grants the secured creditor certain powers to deal with the land upon a default.

An equitable mortgage can be created by (i) the execution of an equitable mortgage, (ii) an agreement to create a legal mortgage, (iii) a transfer of land which is not perfected by registering the secured creditor in the Land Registry in accordance with the Registered Lands Law, and (iv) the deposit of the relevant title deeds by way of security.

Fixed and floating charges are usually evidenced by an agreement between the parties reflecting the grant of the security interest and setting out the commercial terms.

A company must make an entry in its register of mortgages and charges in respect of any security interest created by it in order to comply with section 54 of the Companies Act. A Limited Liability Company (an "LLC") must make an entry on its register of mortgages and charges in a similar manner to an exempted company incorporated or referenced under the Companies Law, in accordance with Section 62(1) of the Limited Liability Companies Act (2020 Revision) (the "LLC Act"). However, failure to comply with these requirements does not invalidate the security interests created by either a company or LLC.

3.4 Can collateral security be taken over receivables? Briefly, what is the procedure? Are debtors required to be notified of the security?

Receivables arising under contract are examples of "choses in action", being a right which can only be asserted by bringing an action and not by taking possession of a physical thing. Receivables can be mortgaged or charged where that mortgage or charge takes the form of an assignment with an express or implied provision for reassignment on redemption. If a chose in action is charged, the charge can be either fixed or floating.

An assignment can be either legal or equitable, depending on the circumstances. The key requirements of a legal assignment are that it is: (i) an absolute assignment of the whole of a present (not future) chose in action; and (ii) the assignment must be both in writing and signed by the assignor and notified in writing to the debtor. An equitable assignment generally only relates to part of a chose in action and/or does not involve the notification of the debtor.

A company and LLC must make an entry in its register of mortgages and charges in respect of any security interest created by it. See question 3.3 above.

3.5 Can collateral security be taken over cash deposited in bank accounts? Briefly, what is the procedure?

A security interest over cash deposits is most commonly created by either a fixed or floating charge, depending on the commercial intention of the parties and the level of control maintained over such cash deposits. The secured creditor should ensure that there is an agreement (usually a deed). Cash deposits are classified as choses in action. Accordingly, the analysis in question 3.4 above applies.

In accordance with Cayman Islands conflict of law rules, the appropriate law to govern any security over cash deposited with a bank will be the law applicable where the bank is located (or the location of the bank branch with which the deposit is made).

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This article first appeared in the International Comparative Legal Guide: Lending & Secured Finance 2021, published by Global Legal Group in April 2021.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.