Answer ... Yes. The parties can propose behavioural and/or structural remedies to the Japan Fair Trade Commission (JFTC) at any time during the reviewing period. In principle, structural measures such as the transfer of business are preferable. However, when such primary measures are not feasible, there may be cases in which certain behavioural measures are accepted under certain circumstances.
Answer ... As mentioned in question 5.1, the parties can propose remedies to the JFTC at any time during both the Phase 1 and Phase 2 review.
In principle, the remedies should be completed before the combination is implemented. If the remedies are to be completed without fail after implementation of the combination, then an appropriate and definite deadline for completion should be imposed.
Answer ... As long as competition in any particular field of trade which geographically includes Japan is substantially restrained, remedies are required, even for foreign-to-foreign transactions. The JFTC handles foreign-to-foreign transactions in the same way as domestic transactions and will not hesitate to order remedies regarding foreign-to-foreign transactions.