Answer ... There are several specialist courts and tribunals in Bangladesh, which include the following.
Money loan courts: The courts established under Section 4 of the Money Loan Court Act, 2003 deal with all suits concerning the recovery of loans by a bank or financial institution, as defined in the act.
Bankruptcy court: Section 4 of Bankruptcy Act, 1997 provides for the establishment of bankruptcy courts, which have full power to decide all questions – whether of title or priority, or of any nature whatsoever, and whether involving matters of law or of fact which may arise in any bankruptcy – coming within the cognisance of the courts.
Family courts: Section 4 of the Family Courts Ordinance, 1985 provides for the establishment of family courts to entertain, try and dispose of any suit (subject to the provisions of the Muslim Family Laws Ordinance, 1961) relating to or arising from all or any of the matters relating to the dissolution of marriage, the restitution of conjugal rights, dower, maintenance or guardianship.
Land survey tribunals: Section 145A of the State Acquisition and Tenancy Act, 1950 provides for the establishment of tribunals to deal with suits arising from the final publication of the last revised record of rights prepared under Section 144 of the State Acquisition and Tenancy Act.
Land Survey Appellate Tribunal: This appellate tribunal is established as per Section 145B of the State Acquisition and Tenancy Act to hear appeals arising from the judgments, decrees and orders passed by the land survey tribunals.
Cyber tribunals: The cyber tribunals, established under Section 68 of the Information and Communication Technology Act, 2006, adjudicate issues arising from the Information and Communication Technology Act and the Digital Security Act, 2018.
Cyber Appellate Tribunal: Section 82 of the Information and Communication Technology Act provides for the establishment of a Cyber Appellate Tribunal, which has the power to hear appeals and dissolve the verdicts and orders issued by the cyber tribunals and the sessions courts, as the case may be.
Environment courts: Section 4 of the Environment Court Act, 2010 provides for the establishment of environment courts for the adjudication of matters deriving from environmental law.
Court of Settlement: Section 9 of the Abandoned Buildings (Supplementary Provisions) Ordinance, 1985 provides for the establishment of a Court of Settlement to deal with issues relating to abandoned buildings, which has all the powers of a civil court. No appeal shall lie from any order or decision of the Court of Settlement to any other court or authority.
Environment Appeal Court: The Environmental Appeal court established under Section 20 of the Environment Court Act may hear appeals accruing from judgments, decrees or orders passed by the environment courts.
Labour courts: The labour courts established as per Section 214 of the Bangladesh Labour Act, 2006 adjudicate labour-related disputes.
Labour Appellate Tribunal: Section 218 of the Bangladesh Labour Act, 2006 provides for the establishment of a Labour Appellate Tribunal which hears appeals against decisions of the labour courts.
Pure food courts: The pure food courts established under Section 64 of the Food Safety Act, 2013 adjudicate matters arising from the Food Safety Act, 2013.
Customs, Excise and VAT Appellate Tribunal: The tribunal is established in accordance with Section 196 of the Customs Act, 1969 and hears appeals against orders passed by the commissioners of customs, the commissioner of customs (bond), the director general (duty exemption and drawback) or any officer of customs equivalent to the commissioner of customs (not being a decision or order passed under Section 82 or 98 of the Customs Act, 1969, or the VAT and Supplementary Duty Act, 2012).
Taxes Appellate Tribunal: The tribunal established under Section 11 of the Income Tax Ordinance, 1984 hears appeals against decisions passed by the appellate joint or additional commissioner or the commissioner (appeals). It is the highest judicial authority in determining the factual points of income tax cases.
Bangladesh Energy Regulatory Commission (BERC): Section 4 of the Bangladesh Energy Regulatory Commission Act, 2003 established BERC to arbitrate disputes in the energy (eg, gas, electricity, petroleum) industry, among others.
Bangladesh Competition Commission: The Bangladesh Competition Commission was established under Section 5(1) of the Competition Act, 2012 to eliminate practices that have an adversarial effect on competition in the market, to promote and sustain competition, and to ensure freedom of trade, among other things.
Information Commission, Bangladesh: The Information Commission was established under Section 11 of the Right to Information Act, 2009 to ensure that citizens have access to information according to the Right to Information Act.
Administrative tribunals: The tribunals (established under Section 3 of the Administrative Tribunals Act, 1980) have exclusive jurisdiction to hear and determine applications made by any person in the service of the republic or of any statutory public authority in respect of the terms and conditions of his or her service, including pension rights, or in respect of any action taken in relation to him or her as a person in the service of the republic or any statutory public authority.
Administrative Appellate Tribunal: Section 5 of the Administrative Tribunals Act, 1980 provides for the establishment of the Administrative Appellate Tribunal to hear and determine appeals from any order or decision of an administrative tribunal.
Children and women repression prevention tribunals: Section 26 of the Children and Women Repression Prevention Act, 2000 provides for the establishment of tribunals to adjudicate matters regarding violence inflicted upon children and women.
Special Tribunal, Securities and Exchange Commission: The Special Tribunal of the Securities and Exchange Commission was established in 2012 under Section 25B of the Securities and Exchange Ordinance, 1969 to deal with stock market-related cases (ie, irregularities in the capital markets), among other things.
Election tribunals: The Election Commission, as per Section 23 of the Local Government (Union Parishad) Act, 2009, constituted tribunals in the districts to resolve disputes over the Union Parishad polls.
International Crime Tribunal: The tribunal was established on 22 March 2012 in accordance with Section 6 of the International Crimes (Tribunal) Act, 1973 for the trial of offences such as:
- crimes against humanity;
- crimes against peace;
- war crimes; and
- any other crimes under international law.