Spain: Casuística Sobre el Accidente de Trabajo "In Itinere"

Last Updated: 24 July 2019
Article by Laura Cantero Gómez

Sentencia de la Sala de lo Social del Tribunal Superior de Justicia de Madrid de 4 de marzo de 2019 (Rec. núm. 979/2018)

La controversia en esta sentencia consiste en determinar si la situación de incapacidad temporal sufrida por la trabajadora demandante puede entenderse derivada de un accidente de trabajo "in itinere" y no como un accidente no laboral.

En el caso concreto, la trabajadora sufre el accidente cuando se dirigía desde el lugar donde había tenido una reunión de trabajo a su centro de trabajo habitual. Durante este trayecto, realiza una parada en una clínica (que se encontraba en un punto intermedio) para gestionar un informe médico requerido por la empresa, y es a la salida de la clínica donde sufre una caída en la calle, causante de la incapacidad temporal.

El Tribunal establece que para poder considerar un accidente como laboral "in itinere" deben concurrir una serie de requisitos:

  1. que el viaje esté motivado por el trabajo (elemento teleológico),
  2. que se produzca en el trayecto habitual y normal que debe recorrerse desde el domicilio al lugar de trabajo o viceversa (elemento geográfico),
  3. que se produzca dentro del tiempo prudencial que normalmente se invierte en el trayecto (elemento cronológico),
  4. que el trayecto se realice con el medio normal de transporte (elemento de idoneidad).

En este caso concreto: (i) el accidente se produce entre el lugar en el que acude únicamente a una reunión y el centro de trabajo, (ii) la trabajadora intercala durante su trayecto la visita de una consulta médica, (iii) no existe conexión con el trabajo, porque a pesar de que la empresa le requirió para presentar el informe, en ningún momento le indicó que lo hiciera ese día (pues la fecha indicada era otra) ni durante su jornada de trabajo.

Por lo tanto, no concurren el elemento teleológico, geográfico ni cronológico, y respecto a la habitualidad del medio de transporte, el accidente se produjo por una caída en la calle, sin utilización de medio alguno.

Por todo lo expuesto, el Tribunal rechaza la consideración del accidente como laboral "in itinere", apreciando que se trata de un accidente no laboral.

Sentencia de la Sala de lo Social del Tribunal Superior de Justicia del País Vasco de 15 de enero de 2019 (Rec. núm. 2505/2018)

Tal y como se ha expuesto en el análisis de la sentencia anterior, relativa a los requisitos para la calificación de un accidente como "in itinere", se deben tener en cuenta varios supuestos para aceptar la existencia del mismo.

Así, en relación con las reglas generales antes referidas es importante destacar que las mismas también encuentran su excepción. En este caso, se considera la existencia de un accidente de trabajo "in itinere" si se produce cuando la trabajadora se trasladaba desde su domicilio a la localidad donde debía desarrollar ese día sus funciones de enfermera.

Durante el trayecto, la trabajadora se desvía a otra localidad, donde vivían sus padres para poder dejar a su hijo con ellos al no tener clase ese día, y es en ese momento cuando sufre el accidente.

En este otro supuesto, se considera que, como la desviación estaba motivada por la necesidad de conciliar su vida personal y familiar con la laboral, no se rompe el nexo causal pues se desvió para poder ir al centro de trabajo y prestar los servicios correspondientes.

A la vista de estas sentencias cabe destacar la importancia de atender a las circunstancias concretas de cada caso, pues se trata de una cuestión muy casuística.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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