Bolivia: Bolivia aprueba la Ley de Empresas Sociales

Last Updated: 15 October 2018
Article by TMF Group

Bolivia sancionó una nueva ley que afecta a todas las compañías privadas que operan en el país. El incumplimiento tendría posibles consecuencias significativas, por lo cual es importante que las compañías tomen nota.

Entender las repercusiones de la nueva legislación es fundamental, y TMF Group tiene la experiencia y el conocimiento local para ayudarlo a comprender las implicancias para su negocio.
La creación de La Ley de Empresas Sociales rige a partir del 1 de mayo de 2018 y fue sancionada por la Asamblea Plurinacional.

Esta ley permitirá a los trabajadores tomar el control de las compañías privadas para las que trabajan, cuando las compañías entren en bancarrota, abandono o quiebra. El Jefe de estado mencionó, al promulgar la ley, que no es una medida para castigar a los empleadores sino para proteger los derechos de los empleados, y crear y mantener el mercado laboral.

La jugada del presidente de Bolivia, Evo Morales, es la de mantener al país como un estado intervencionista que se aproxima al socialismo cada vez más. Esta ley busca sancionar la actividad privada y son similares a las leyes existentes en Venezuela.

La creación de la Ley de Empresas Sociales afectará particularmente a las pequeñas y medianas empresas que enfrentan problemas de flujo de dinero y no tienen suficiente liquidez para realizar los pagos. Asimismo, la nueva ley aumenta el riesgo de comenzar un nuevo negocio y amenaza al emprendedorismo en el país.

Alcance de la nueva ley en Bolivia

De acuerdo a la norma, una empresa social está constituida por los trabajadores activos de una compañía privada que está en bancarrota o quiebra, cuyo objetivo es reactivar la compañía en defensa de sus fuentes de trabajo y del interés social.

Los trabajadores que tomen ventaja del alcance de esta ley deben asumir responsabilidades y el riesgo de controlar la administración de activos de forma colectiva, a través de acuerdos equitativos internos.

El periódico boliviano "Página siete", en su edición del 16 de mayo, reveló parte del texto enviado por el Ejecutivo al órgano Legislativo el 11 de mayo. El texto incluía el artículo siete de la propuesta oficial que establece la cobertura de "abandono injustificado de una compañía donde existe una falta de pago de las obligaciones a los trabajadores por un periodo que exceda los tres meses continuos, cuando la suspensión o reducción ocurra de forma gradual en las actividades".

La formación de las Empresas Sociales está prevista en el artículo 54 de la Constitución  Política del Estado que establece tres modalidades para crearlas: bancarrota, quiebra o abandono. El propósito del Decreto 1754 fue el de "facilitar" la constitución de empresas Sociales privadas cuando existen procedimientos de bancarrota o quiebra y cuando existen compañías que cerraron o fueron abandonadas de manera injustificada.

Ejemplos previos

De acuerdo a la nueva Ley, un juez civil o laboral, dependiendo de la causa, será responsable de decidir cuándo una compañía debe ser transferida a sus empleados. Aunque la Ley sea nueva, ya ha habido algunos ejemplos de compañías afectadas. En La Paz, existen cinco compañías que fueron transferidas a los empleados: Polar, Cerámica Victoria, Punto Blanco y dos empresas textiles. Una de ellas ha cerrado debido a que a los empleados les fue imposible continuar con su administración.

El Ministro de Empleo, en apoyo a la Ley, notó que el objetivo de la regulación es el de crear facilidades y asegurar que los empleados tengan recursos financieros extraordinarios para ofertar la compañía. Asimismo, esta ley hace que resulte más fácil para ellos, aunque tengan deudas con proveedores de servicios básicos, para continuar recibiendo financiamiento.

Contragolpe

Ha habido un contragolpe para los líderes de negocios, que llamaron a una reunión de emergencia a fin de coordinar un plan de acción contra la nueva ley, que afirman que afecta sus derechos constitucionales de propiedad privada. Han anunciado su intención de presentar un recurso constitucional.

El Presidente de la Confederación de Emprendedores Privados de Bolivia (CEPB), Ronald Nostas, se arrepintió que la Asamblea Legislativa persista en el tratamiento de la Ley de Empresas Sociales, a pesar de la seriedad de los comentarios realizados al contenido, y anunció que la CEPB ha instruido actuar contra la inconstitucionalidad percibida.

Nostas mencionó que la Ley de Empresas Sociales "es el ataque más serio contra la propiedad privada en el país, lo que también alienta la confrontación entre trabajadores y empleadores, y deja a las compañías en defensa contra la toma de unidades de producción".

Solicite ayuda de los expertos

La experiencia de TMF Bolivia en ayudar a que las compañías mantengan el cumplimiento regulatorio apoyará a que los negocios se mantengan operativos, cumpliendo con los plazos establecidos por ley para el pago de impuestos y contribuciones sociales. Para saber más, contáctenos.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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