Ecuador: Los primeros 90 días: lo que debe saber para comenzar un negocio en Ecuador

Last Updated: 10 October 2018
Article by TMF Group

Si piensa comenzar un negocio en Ecuador, aquí podrá leer todo lo que necesita saber para superar los primeros 90 días.

La economía de Ecuador es la octava más grande en Latinoamérica. Ofrece muchas oportunidades pero aún existen complejidades que se deben enfrentar para comenzar negocios en el país

La constitución de un negocio

El primer paso para inversores extranjeros que quieren comenzar un negocio en Ecuador es determinar qué tipo de entidad desean constituir. Puede ser una corporación local, una sucursal local de una entidad existente o una sociedad de responsabilidad limitada (SRL), una sociedad o una compañía mixta. Para cualquier tipo de constitución, es necesario obtener un número de identificación tributaria.

Si el plan de incorporación involucra accionistas de un país extranjero, el proceso será más largo dado que es necesario que todos cuenten con la documentación apropiada. Ello incluye estatutos, poderes legales y documentos de identidad. Asimismo, la documentación debe estar traducida al español.

Un punto importante a tener en cuenta antes de decidir hacer negocios en Ecuador es que existe un 25% de tasa de impuesto a la renta. También existe un reparto de ganancias con los empleados de todas las compañías de un 15% de las ganancias imponibles del negocio. Ello significa que toda compañía debe pagar alrededor del 36% de sus ganancias cada año. Las compañías deben tener en cuenta que toda ganancia obtenida debe repartirse parcialmente al gobierno y los empleados.

Todas las entidades están registradas y controladas por la Superintendencia de Compañías y están reguladas por la Ley de Empresas. Existen dos pasos sin costo para comenzar un negocio en Ecuador con la autoridad municipal. El primer paso es el de realizar una solicitud para obtener una patente, que puede hacerse en línea y solo lleva 24 hs. El segundo paso es obtener una licencia para comenzar a funcionar que contempla una inspección de los bomberos que se realiza, por lo general, dentro de los 15 días posteriores a la presentación de la solicitud. Luego de la aprobación, se otorga la tasa de habilitación y se debe pagar la patente comercial, que se calcula en base a los activos de la compañía.

El cumplimiento

Para combatir el lavado de dinero, Ecuador tiene regulaciones de Beneficiario Único Real (UBO, en inglés) ante la autoridad fiscal, bancos y otras entidades financieras. Todos los accionistas deben completar formularios obligatorios para probar la legitimidad del negocio y los accionistas.

Los empleados

Luego de la constitución, si una compañía tiene previsto tener empleados, estos deben estar registrados y tener credenciales de la Administración de Seguridad Social y el Ministerio de Trabajo. El empleador deberá contar con las credenciales para contratar y registrar nuevos empleados. Durante el proceso de contratación, es importante que tengan presente que si no generan ventas inmediatamente, las obligaciones con los empleados, tales como el salario y los beneficios, comienzan cuando se firma el contrato. Se pagará a los empleados el 15% del reparto de ganancias al final de cada periodo, si existiesen ganancias. Luego de esta distribución, el empleador es responsable del impuesto a la renta.

Los empleados reciben un décimo tercer sueldo en diciembre. Deben realizar un aporte a la seguridad social, a una tasa igual al 9,45% de su salario bruto. Asimismo, existe un décimo cuarto sueldo que corresponde a un salario estándar, equivalente a USD 386 actualmente, a pagar en marzo o agosto dependiendo de la región.

La ubicación

Durante los primeros 90 días, se debe decidir dónde estará ubicada la compañía. Existen incentivos para nuevas inversiones en ciudades fuera de la capital y en ciudades principales en Ecuador. El gobierno ofrece estos incentivos de expansión a industrias específicas.

La moneda

Es importante saber que, desde 2000, la moneda local es el dólar estadounidense. Cada transacción, incluso los salarios, se paga en dólares. La economía es estable con una tasa de inflación muy baja.

TMF Group

TMF Group en Ecuador se estableció en 2006 y es un proveedor líder de servicios de contabilidad, cumplimiento tributario, recursos humanos, nómina y gestión de entidades legales, brindando apoyo a clientes locales y globales. TMF Ecuador es miembro activo de la Cámara de Comercio Americana y se encuentra bien posicionada para ayudarlo a enfrentar las complejidades para establecer un negocio en Ecuador. Un equipo de profesionales con experiencia que cuenta con el conocimiento local y alcance global, que forman parte de una operación global que brinda servicios corporativos en 83 países. Contáctenos.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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