Ecuador: Recomendaciones para evitar ser sancionado por discriminación en la selección de personal

Last Updated: 1 October 2018
Article by María Elena Sanmartín

Los empleadores y reclutadores deben replantearse la forma en que se practican los procesos de selección de personal, a efectos de evitar cometer actos de discriminación, ya que podrían estar sujetos a denuncias de los postulantes rechazados y, en caso de verificarse la existencia de un hecho discriminatorio, ser sancionados laboral, civil e incluso, dependiendo del caso, penalmente.

Al día de hoy, en términos generales, los procesos de selección de personal en Ecuador tienen vicios adquiridos que revelan automáticamente una cultura discriminatoria que dificulta el acceso a un puesto de trabajo a determinados perfiles. La especificación del género, edad o la inclusión de fotografías en la hoja de vida del postulante, son requisitos frecuentemente requeridos; sin embargo, nada tienen que ver con las funciones que va a desempeñar el postulante en el puesto ofertado o con las competencias que éste puede aportar a la empresa.

Consideraciones que debe tomar en cuenta el empleador a la hora de seleccionar personal, para evitar cometer actos de discriminación.-

La Constitución de la República del Ecuador dispone que ninguna persona podrá ser discriminada por razones relacionadas a su etnia, lugar de nacimiento, edad, sexo, identidad de género, identidad cultural, estado civil, idioma, religión, ideología, filiación, política, pasado judicial, condición socio-económica o condición migratoria. Tampoco podrá ser discriminada en razón de su orientación sexual, estado de salud, ser portador de VIH, tener alguna discapacidad física o cualquier otra distinción, personal o lectiva, temporal o permanente.

En este sentido, el empleador debe tomar en cuenta que la ley reconoce el derecho a las personas a participar en igualdad de oportunidades y libres de discriminación de cualquier índole en los procesos de selección de personal en el sector público y privado, por lo que deberá evitar solicitar requisitos que no tengan relación con el puesto de trabajo ofertado.

¿Qué información está prohibido solicitar a los postulantes en el Ecuador?

Las disposiciones de la normativa contra la discriminación son de aplicación obligatoria para el sector público y privado y busca que se impongan criterios de selección de talento humano, basados en el conocimiento técnico específico, la experiencia y demás requisitos inherentes para el adecuado desenvolvimiento de la vacante laboral. Es decir, la finalidad es apostar por el talento de las personas.

Es importante tomar en cuenta que, el problema de la discriminación en varias ocasiones gira en torno al diseño tradicional de las fichas de evaluación de postulantes, ya que estas imponen etiquetas que no están relacionadas con las funciones que va a desempeñar en el puesto ofertado y las competencias que puede aportar a la empresa. De ahí que es recomendable reajustar este modelo, considerando que está prohibido solicitar lo siguiente:

  1. Pruebas y/o resultados de embarazo;
  2. Información referente al estado civil;
  3. Fotografías en el perfil de la hoja de vida;
  4. Pruebas y/o resultados de exámenes de VIH/SIDA;
  5. Información de cualquier índole acerca del pasado judicial del postulante;
  6. Pólizas de seguro privado por enfermedades degenerativas o catastróficas;
  7. Establecer como requisitos, criterios de selección referentes a la edad, sexo, etnia, identidad de género, religión, pasado judicial; y
  8. Impedir a los postulantes el uso de vestimentas propias, referentes a su etnia o a su identidad de género.

Por esta razón, se recomienda al empleador o reclutador de personal priorizar y basarse en aquellos aspectos de la hoja de vida que destaquen las competencias profesionales, el talento, los logros y experiencias del postulante, frente a sus datos personales. De esta forma, dentro de un proceso de selección, el reclutador deberá valorar aquellos aspectos objetivos del postulante y eliminar los requisitos subjetivos que representan barreras para éste, como por ejemplo, la contratación de personas de una determinada edad, que cuentan con la experiencia profesional necesaria, pero que su edad supone una barrera, incluso para optar a una entrevista de trabajo.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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