Ecuador: El pagaré a la orden

Last Updated: 21 September 2018
Article by Expertise Advisor Abogados

El pagaré a la orden es un título de crédito o título valor, que incorpora la promesa de pago pura y simple de una suma específica de dinero, a una persona determinada. En el pagaré intervienen dos partes: el suscriptor, quien se obliga al pago mediante su firma; y, el beneficiario: a quien se debe el pago.

Para que el pagaré tenga validez jurídica debe cumplir con los requisitos determinados en el artículo 486 del Código de Comercio:

  1. Denominación: La denominación del documento inserta en el texto mismo y expresada en el idioma empleado en la redacción del documento. Los pagarés que no llevaren la referida denominación, serán, sin embargo, válidos, si contuvieren la indicación expresa de ser a la orden;
  2. La Promesa incondicional de pagar una suma determinada de dinero;
  3. La indicación del vencimiento;
  4. La del lugar donde deberá efectuarse el pago;
  5. El nombre de la persona a quien o cuya orden debe efectuarse el pago;
  6. La indicación de la fecha y el lugar donde se suscribe el pagaré;
  7. La firma de quien suscribe el pagaré.

A pesar de que es obligatoria la existencia de los requisitos que fueron detallados anteriormente, el Código de Comercio estable ciertas excepciones:

  1. El pagaré cuyo vencimiento no estuviere indicado, se considerará como pagadero a la vista;
  2. A falta de indicación especial, el lugar de emisión del documento se considerará como lugar del pago y, al propio tiempo, como lugar del domicilio del suscriptor;
  3. El pagaré en el cual no se indicare el lugar de su emisión, se considerará suscrito en el lugar designado al lado del nombre del suscriptor.
  • Tipos de vencimiento:

El pagaré será exigible desde que se cumpla la fecha de vencimiento, la cual puede ser dentro de los siguientes casos:

  1. Día fijo: (Ej.: 23 de octubre de 2018
  2. Cierto plazo de fecha: (Ej.: a 30 días desde el 17 de septiembre de 2018);
  3. A la vista: es decir cuando el documento sea presentado al deudor.
  4. Cierto plazo de vista: (Ej.: 30 días desde que fue presentado el documento al deudor);
  5. Vencimientos sucesivos: Por lo general se establece el pago de la totalidad de la obligación dividida en cuotas y en distintas fechas.
  • Endoso:

Según el artículo 419 del Código de Comercio, el pagaré a la orden es endosable, es decir que el derecho de cobro del portador o beneficiario, es transferible a una tercera persona que en principio no participó de la relación jurídica.

  • Prescripción del cobro del Pagaré:

Según el artículo 479 del Código de Comercio, todas las acciones contra el deudor para garantizar el pago, prescriben en tres años desde la fecha del vencimiento.

  • Ejemplo práctico del Pagaré:

PAGARÉ A LA ORDEN

Por: USD $ 1.000,00

Debo y pagaré incondicionalmente, en esta ciudad o en el lugar en que se me (nos) reconvenga, a la orden de _________________ la cantidad de MIL DÓLARES DE LOS ESTADOS UNIDOS DE AMÉRICA (USD $ 7.000,00), por igual valor que he recibido a mi entera satisfacción, obligándome incondicionalmente a pagarla el día ____de ____ de ____.

En caso de falta de pago parcial o total de importe de este pagaré a la orden, me comprometo a pagar sobre los valores del capital principal no pagados, la máxima tasa de interés de mora que haya dispuesto la Junta de Política y Regulación Monetaria y Financiera y que se halle vigente a la respectiva fecha de vencimiento. Además, pagaré todos los gastos judiciales, extrajudiciales y honorarios profesionales que ocasione el cobro de este pagaré a la orden, bastando para determinar el monto de tales gastos, la sola aseveración del acreedor. Me obligo para el cumplimiento de todo lo estipulado en el presente documento con todos mis bienes presentes y futuros. Renuncio domicilio y en todo lo relativo a este pagaré, quedo sometido a los jueces competentes de la ciudad de Quito o del lugar en que se me reconvenga, en la vía ejecutiva o verbal sumaria, a elección del demandante, obligándome irrevocablemente al fiel cumplimiento de lo aquí estipulado. Exímase al acreedor de este Pagaré a la Orden, de su presentación para el pago al suscriptor del mismo, así como de realizar avisos de vencimiento o de protesto por falta de pago.

Lugar y fecha:            Quito DM, ____ de ____ de ____

____________________

Cédula No.

Dirección:

Ciudad:________    País:_____

Fuentes bibliográficas:

  • Oscar Lanata Alava. Tesis de Postgrado para la obtención de la Maestría en Derecho Empresarial. Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja. Tema: "El Pagaré (Título Valor) Comparado con otros Títulos, Funciones, Problemáticas y Acciones para hacerla efectiva". Loja, 2008, págs.: 5,6,11,15,16,17.
  • María Soledad Montenegro Rivas; Ing. Carlos Arturo Murillo Cabrera. Tesis previa a la obtención del Grado de Magister en Derecho Bancario y Legislación Bursátil. Universidad Católica de Santiago de Guayaquil. Tema: "El efecto jurídico de la negociación de títulos inmovilizados o valores desmaterializados bajo el registro de anotaciones en cuentas en los sistemas de compensación y liquidación de valores, conforme a la regulación ecuatoriana"
  • O. Suplemento No. 28 del 20 de agosto de 1960. "Código de Comercio"

Este artículo es meramente informativo. Si desea recibir asesoría legal sobre temas comerciales y/o la aplicación de este documento, por favor, no dude en contactarnos a través de lawfirm@expertise.com.ec

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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