Switzerland: Newsletter Mai 2018 – Regress Des Eigenschadenversicherers – Änderung Der Rechtsprechung

Praxisänderung zum Regress des Eigenschadenversicherers

I. Das Wichtigste in Kürze

Das Bundesgericht hat im zur Publikation vorgesehenen Entscheid 4A_602/2017 vom 7. Mai 2018 einen fundamentalen Wechsel seiner rund 100jährigen Praxis zum Regress des Eigenschadenversicherers vorge-nommen. Die Rechtsprechung lässt neu die Subrogation des Versicherers in die Haftpflichtansprüche des von ihm versicherten Geschädigten gegen einen Kausalhaftenden zu.

Der Entscheid ist von grosser Bedeutung für die Ansprüche der Eigenschadenversicherer im VVG-Bereich, so beispielsweise für Unfallversicherer im überobligatorischen Bereich, Gebäude- oder Vertrauensschaden-versicherer. Er kann aber auch Auswirkungen auf die Geltendmachung von Ansprüchen eines Haftpflicht-versicherers haben.

II. Bisherige Praxis – Einschränkung des Versicherungsregresses

Für den Rückgriff des privatrechtlichen Eigenschadenversicherers auf Dritte, die für einen beim Versicher-ten eingetretenen Schaden haftbar sind, bestehen zwei mögliche gesetzliche Grundlagen. Einerseits erlaubt Art. 72 VVG eine Subrogation in die Ansprüche, die dem Versicherten "gegenüber Dritten aus unerlaubter Handlung" zustehen. Andererseits verschafft Art. 51 OR dem Versicherer einen selbständigen Regressan-spruch gegen Personen, die für denselben Schaden haften.

Das Bundesgericht hat in seiner bisherigen Praxis diese beiden Bestimmungen koordiniert. Dabei hat es konsequent dem Willen des historischen Gesetzgebers Nachachtung verschafft, der den Rückgriff des Ver-sicherers gegen Dritte, insbesondere gegen Kausalhaftende, beschränken wollte.

Im Ergebnis führte dies zu zwei markanten Einschränkungen des Anspruchs des Eigenschadenversicherers. Zum einen wurde ein Regress verweigert, wenn der Haftende ohne Verschulden aufgrund einer Kausal- oder Gefährdungshaftung für einen Schaden verantwortlich war. Zum anderen bestand eine weitere Ein-schränkung mit der sog. Gini-Dürlemann Praxis im Rückgriff gegen einen aus Vertrag Haftenden. Das Rückgriffsrecht des Versicherers soll hier nur bejaht werden, wenn dem Vertragshaftenden ein grobes Ver-schulden zur Last gelegt werden kann.

III. Neue Rechtsprechung

In seiner neuen Rechtsprechung musste das Bundesgericht über einen Rückgriffsanspruch eines privaten Eigenschadenversicherers (Spitalzusatzversicherung) gegen einen Kausalhaftenden (Motorfahrzeughalter) bzw. gegen dessen Haftpflichtversicherer (Motorfahrzeughaftpflichtversicherung) entscheiden.

Dabei hat es sich intensiv mit der in der Lehre geäusserten Kritik an seiner Praxis beschäftigt (vgl. dazu CASANOVA, Ausgleichsanspruch und Ausgleichsordnung, Diss., Zürich 2010, S. 155 ff., S. 167 ff.) und die Voraussetzungen für eine Praxisänderung bejaht.

Das Bundesgericht hat in der Folge entschieden, dass

  1. Art. 51 Abs. 2 OR über den internen Regress von Personen, die aus verschiedenen Rechtsgrün-den haften, keine Anwendung findet für den Regress des Eigenschadenversicherers gegen den Kausalhaftenden. Vielmehr stützt sich der Anspruch des Versicherers auf eine Subrogation nach Art. 72 VVG; und
  2. die eingeschränkte Anwendung von Art. 72 VVG auf die deliktische Verschuldenshaftung zu eng ist. Nach der neuen Rechtsprechung erfasst Art. 72 VVG sämtliche ausservertraglichen Haftungen, d.h. auch die Kausal- und Gefährdungshaftungen.

IV. Folgen des Entscheids

Der Entscheid ist zu begrüssen. Dogmatisch lässt er zwar verschiedene Fragen offen und dürfte damit eher den Anfang einer neuen Rechtsprechung bilden als den Abschluss einer Entwicklung. Ein notwendiger ers-ter Schritt zu einer stringenteren Behandlung von Rückgriffsansprüchen und zur Ermöglichung eines Um-fassenden Rückgriffsrechts der Privatversicherer ist damit allerdings erfolgt.

Die wichtigste offene Frage ist die Rückgriffsberechtigung des Eigenschadenversicherers gegen einen aus Vertrag Haftenden. Ein Verlassen der bis anhin einschränkenden Gini-Dürlemann Praxis hätte weitrei-chende Folgen, nicht nur für den Eigenschadenversicherer, sondern möglicherweise auch für Haftpflicht-versicherer, die Ansprüche gegen Vertragspartner ihres Versicherten geltend machen wollen (vgl. dazu GRABER/CASANOVA, Zum Regress des Haftpflichtversicherers, in: Liber Amicorum Roland Brehm, 2012, S. 162 ff.).

Das Bundesgericht musste diese Frage vorliegend nicht beantworten. Klar scheint, dass die vom Bundes-gericht für den Rückgriff gegen den Kausalhaftenden getroffene Lösung nicht direkt auf den Rückgriff gegen den Vertragshaftenden angewandt werden kann. Aus dem Entscheid des Bundesgerichts lassen sich allerdings gute Gründe für eine Abwendung von der Gini-Dürlemann Praxis ableiten. Damit besteht die Hoffnung, dass das Bundesgericht bei Vorliegen eines geeigneten Falls den nun eingeschlagenen Weg kon-sequent weiter beschreiten und dem Versicherer ein umfassendes Rückgriffrecht gegen sämtliche Haftende zugestehen wird, so wie es im aktuellen Vorschlag zur Teilrevision des VVG in Art. 95c Abs. 2 vorgesehen ist (vgl. Botschaft zur Änderung des Versicherungsvertragsgesetzes vom 28. Juni 2017, BBl 2017 5089 ff.).

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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