Vietnam: ベトナム物流規制~新政令第163号~大きな変更点なし

Last Updated: 18 January 2018
Article by Manfred Otto

メディア報道と異なり、ベトナムの新物流規制は外国人投資家に対して市場を更に開放せず、新たに eコマース規制の順守要件を明記しています。

2018年2月20日施行のロジスティクス・サービスに関する政令第163/2017/ND-CP号により、旧政令第140/2007/ND-CP号が効力を失います。多くの外国人投資家は物流分野において、更なる明確化及び市場アクセスを望んでいました。少なくても書面上、新政令第163号は外国人投資家に新たな権利を付与するものではなく、実務上不明確な点が新しく出てくるかもしれません。一方、最も興味深い新条項は、物流プロセスのデジタル化に影響を及ぼす可能性があります。

ベトナムがWTOに加盟した2007年に発行された政令第140号は、ベトナム基準からみれば、非常に古い規制です。その後、法改正が大分進み、物流部門の多くの事業活動を含む、ほとんどのサービス部門が外国人投資家に開放されました。新政令第163号のいくつかの要点を以下に述べます。

I「ロジスティクス」の再定義

外国人投資家(及び外国投資を受け入れたいベトナム企業)は、ベトナムで営む予定の各事業活動について外資規制などの条件が適用されるかどうかを細かく確認しなければなりません。旧政令第140号は、2005年の商法第233条を参照し、「ロジスティクス」を定義していました。新政令第163号の3条は、以下のロジスティクス・サービスを規制しています。

政令第163号3条におけるロジスティクス・サービス

  1. コンテナ積降サービス(空港でのサービスを除く)
  2. 海運補助サービスの一環としてのコンテナヤード・サービス
  3. 全ての運送手段の補助サービスの一環としてのコンテナ・サービス
  4. 配達サービス
  5. 貨物運送代理サービス
  6. 税関仲介サービス(通関サービスを含む)
  7. 次の活動を含むその他のサービス:運送証券検査、貨物運送仲介サービス、貨物鑑定、サンプリング採取及び重量判定、貨物の受取、受入サービス、運送証書準備サービス
  8. 貨物の保管、回収、仕分けの管理や貨物の分類、配送を含む卸売及び小売補助サービス
  9. 海運サービスの一環としての貨物運送サービス
  10. 内陸水路運送サービスの一環としての貨物運送サービス
  11. 鉄道運送サービスの一環としての貨物運送サービス
  12. 道路運送サービスの一部としての貨物運送サービス
  13. 空輸サービス
  14. 複合運送サービス
  15. 技術分析、検定サービス
  16. その他の運送サポートサービス
  17. 物流サービス提供者が商法の基本原理に従って顧客との合意に基づく提供するその他のサービス

「配達サービス」及び「その他の運送サービス」に関して、第3条に詳細が定義されていません。政令の作成者はおそらく、ベトナムのWTOサービス・セクター・コミットメント( WTOSSC)で使われている国連の中央生産物分類( CPC)コードと比較できるベトナム標準産業分類システム( VSIC)を参照することを意図していました。例えば、VSIC 5230の「配達サービス」には、「貨物運送サービス」でカバーされていない郵便物および小包の配送が含まれます。 VSIC 5320 は、「速配サービス」を含むWTOSSCの「クーリエサービス」(CPC 7512 courier services)に類似しています。新政令第163号の「配達サービス」及びWTOSSCの「クーリエサービス」は外国人保有比率の制限がありません。これは外資系宅配便業者にとって、良いニュースでしょう。

II.外国人保有比率の制限(FOL)について変更なし

WTOSSC及び旧政令第140号には、FOL及び市場開放のスケジュールが既に規定されていました。新政令第163号には、この点について変更点がみられません。また、新政令は様々な貨物関連サービスのFOLなどの基本条件を定めていますが、旅客運送サービスについては何も語っていません。

以下の表は、物流部門における主要な外国人保有比率の上限をまとめたものです。簡略化した表であり、それらの業務に追加的条件が適用されます。その上、外国人投資家には更なる条件が適用されます。例えば、最大49%の外国資本を持つ海上貨物運送会社は、ベトナムで船舶を登録し、ベトナム国旗を掲げられますが、非ベトナム人の船員は最大3分の1のみとなります。船長及び第一副船長はベトナム国民ではなければなりません。政令第163号の他の条件と同様に、これは新しいものではなく、既にWTOSSCで定められていました。

ベトナムの物流部門における外国人保有比率の制限(FOL)

WTOSSC 政令第163号
CPC サービス分類 FOL FOL
742 倉庫 100%
748 貨物運送代理(貨物輸送サービスを含む) 100%
749 貨物所有者に代わり、船荷証券検査、貨物仲介、貨物検査、サンプリング及び計量、商品の入荷受取サービス、運送書類作成 99% 99%
7211 海運 (国内の顧客輸送) 49%
7212 (a) 海運 (国内の貨物輸送)ベトナム国旗船舶 49% 49%
7212 (b) 海運(国内の貨物輸送)外国船舶 100% 100%
7221 内陸水路運送(顧客運送) 49%
7222 内陸水路運送(貨物運送) 49% 49%
7111 鉄道運送(顧客運送) Unbound
7112 鉄道運送(貨物運送) 49%
7121 + 7122 道路運送(顧客運送) 49%
7123 道路運送(貨物運送) 51% 51%
No CPC 通関 99%
No CPC コンテナヤード 100%
7411 コンテナ積降(空港でのサービスを除く) 50% 50%
621, 61111, 6113, 6121, 622, 631 + 632 流通(輸出入、販売代理店、卸売、小売) 100%

III eコマース条項、物流サービスのデジタル化

政令第163号で新たに挙げられていることの1つに、ベトナム電子商取引規制の順守要件があります。第 4条2項により、インターネット、モバイル、またはその他の「オープン・ネットワーク」を介して電子的に業務の一部または全部を行う物流事業は、電子商取引(eコマース)の規制に従う必要があります。ベトナムの主要なeコマース規制は、政令第52/2013/ND-CP号です。政令第52号では、eコマース・サービス事業者の商工省への通知または登録が義務付けられています。eコマース事業者は、政令第52条及びその他の法律と規制に従い、個人情報及び消費者の利益を保護しなければなりません。しかし、これらのeコマース要件も、政令第163号の施行前にeコマース活動を行っていた物流サービスにも既に適用されていたと考えられます。

第4条2項は非常に広義に解釈され、例えば、Eメール、メッセージ・アプリ、ウェブ会議、企業のウェブサイト、ソーシャルネットワーク(SNS)のあらゆる業務通信にも適用される可能性が当然あります。しかし、第4条2項が「オープン・ネットワーク」を利用するデジタル・サプライチェーンやスマート倉庫技術などの最新のデジタル社内プロセスにも適用されるかどうかが課題です。「オープン・ネットワーク」がベトナム法で定義されていらず、様々な文献も、その意味について意見が分かれています。例えば、ある技術的な記事により、「オープン・ネットワークは今日・・・ユーザーの選択」を意味するとし、法的観点からはあまり参考にはなりません。IT専門家が「オープン・ネットワーク」の意味ついてにはっきりしないかぎり、物流活動の規制及びそのライセンス発行などを担当しているベトナム当局の官僚も同様に混乱し、4条2項の解釈が様々で不明確になるになる可能性が大きいです。

【結論】新政令第 163号は、ベトナムの物流部門における外国人投資家の市場アクセス権を拡大せず、 eコマース規制を遵守する明確な要件を導入しています。

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