Bulgaria: Отсрочка За Последните Мерки Относно Елеl

Last Updated: 15 December 2017
Article by Katerina Kraeva and Rebeka Kleytman

На 27 ноември 2017г. Европейската комисия прие Регулаторните технически стандарти ("Техническите стандарти") към втората директива (1) на ЕС за платежните услуги ("Втората директива").

Втората директива влиза в сила на 13-ти януари 2018г. с изключение на мерките, уредени в Техническите стандарти, които съгласно настоящите прогнози се очаква да влязат в сила от септември 2019г.

ВТОРАТА ДИРЕКТИВА е насочена към адаптиране на регулацията на платежните услуги към динамичното развитие на технологиите и по-специално услугите, предоставяни от финансово-технологичните дружества (известни като FinTech). Сред нейните заявени цели са стимулиране на иновацията, конкуренцията и ефективността на онлайн пазарите на дребно, които се постигат чрез следните промени:

  • достъп на ползвателите до иновативни платежни услуги;
  • задължение за банките да си сътрудничат с финансово-технологичните дружества при  предоставяне на онлайн достъп до сметки;
  • завишени мерки за сигурност по отношение установяването идентичността на клиента при същевременно стриктно съблюдаване на правилата за защита на личните данни;
  • "нови" услуги, които са обхванати от регулацията, включващи иницииране на плащане и предоставяне на информация по сметка.

ТЕХНИЧЕСКИТЕ СТАНДАРТИ са задължителни изисквания, които ще бъдат директно приложими във всички държави-членки и съответно ще станат част от тяхното вътрешното законодателство. Те се фокусират върху защитата на потребителите посредством допълнителни мерки за сигурност и повишаване на конкуренцията и иновативността на онлайн плащанията на дребно.

Съгласно Техническите стандарти простото въвеждане на парола или данни, които са изписани на кредитна карта, могат да не бъдат достатъчни за извършването на плащане. В определени случаи ще се изисква задължително и допълнителна еднократна парола, предназначена само за конкретното плащане. За целите на идентификацията потребителите ще трябва да използват две от следните три средства: нещо, което знаят (като парола), нещо, което имат (телефон или карта) и нещо, което те са (като биометрични данни).

Горните мерки не са непознати на платежния пазар и в момента. Картови схеми като Visa и Mastercard от дълго време предоставят допълнителни пароли за сигурност (Verified by VISA и Mastercard SecureCode), а повечето банки изпращат пароли с еднократно приложение чрез текстови съобщения до мобилните телефони на ползвателите. Финансово-технологичните дружества също популяризират подобни мерки като идентификация чрез пръстов отпечатък или сканиране на лице. Разликата по новата регулация е, че съгласно Техническите стандарти доброволният характер на тези допълнителни мерки за сигурност се премахва и те стават задължителни.

Изключения, естествено, има. По-тежките мерки за сигурност няма да се прилагат при наличие на други, задоволителни, начини за оценка на риска и идентифицирането на операциите с цел избягване на случаите на измама. Облекчен е режимът и на безконтактните плащания.

При сътрудничеството с финансово-технологичните дружества за банките ще съществува допълнително задължение да осигурят комуникационни канали, гарантиращи пълна защита на информацията. Разширява се необходимостта от допълнителни софтуерни решения, които се оказаха наложителни при въвеждането и на другите две големи групи от нови мерки приложими от 2018 по силата на директивата относно пазарите на финансови инструменти 2 и директивата за мерките срещу изпирането на пари3.

Техническите стандарти засягат и корпоративните плащания като изискват адекватни мерки за сигурност, но дават възможност за освобождаване на корпоративните плащания от изискванията за задълбочено установяване на идентичността на клиента по решение на местните регулатори.

В БЪЛГАРИЯ ВТОРАТА ДИРЕКТИВА ще бъде имплементирана чрез новия Закон за платежните услуги и платежните инструменти, който в момента се разглежда в парламента.

Законопроектът обхваща доставчиците на услуги по предоставяне на информация и услугите по иницииране на плащания, както е предвидено във Втората директива и предвижда изплащане на информация до Европейския банков орган както и по-строг надзор на местно ниво. Наред с чувствително завишените размери на глобите и имуществените санкции, законопроектът предвижда шестмесечен срок за привеждане на дейността на доставчиците на платежни услуги в съответствие с новите изисквания като изрично постановява, че издадените лицензи по общо правило ще запазят действието си. Това е преобладаващият режим при въвеждането на Втората директива в повечето Европейски страни, може би с изключение на Великобритания, която изиска пререгистрация на съществуващите лицензирани доставчици на платежни услуги.

Footnotes

1 Директива (ЕС) 2015/2366 на Европейския парламент и на Съвета от 25 ноември 2015 година за платежните услуги във вътрешния пазар

2 Директива 2014/65/ЕС на Европейския парламент и на Съвета от 15 май 2014 година относно пазарите на финансови инструменти

3 Директива (ЕС) 2015/849 на Европейския парламент и на Съвета от 20 май 2015 година за предотвратяване използването на финансовата система за целите на изпирането на пари и финансирането на тероризма

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