Spain: La vuelta al Canon Digital

El pasado 4 de julio de 2017 se publicó en el Boletín Oficial del Estado (BOE) el Real Decreto-ley 12/2017, de 3 de julio, por el que se modifica el texto refundido de la Ley de Propiedad Intelectual en cuanto al sistema de compensación equitativa por copia privada.

Esta nueva norma sustituye el actual modelo de compensación equitativa financiado con cargo a los Presupuestos Generales del Estado –consecuencia, a su vez, de la modificación introducida en la Ley de Propiedad Intelectual por el Real Decreto-ley 20/2011, de 30 de diciembre, de medidas urgentes en materia presupuestaria, tributaria y financiera para la corrección del déficit público, y por la Ley 21/2014, de 4 de noviembre, por la que se modifica el texto refundido de la Ley de Propiedad Intelectual- por un modelo basado en el pago de un importe que deberán satisfacer los fabricantes y distribuidores de equipos, aparatos y soportes de reproducción.

Vuelve, por lo tanto, el llamado canon digital.

Esta modificación ha sido consecuencia directa de los recientes pronunciamientos judiciales del Tribunal de Justicia de la Unión Europea (TJUE) y del Tribunal Supremo (TS), que han dejado sin vigencia la actual regulación de compensación equitativa por copia privada -por no prever ésta ningún medio que asegurara que el coste efectivo de la compensación equitativa pesara exclusivamente sobre quienes habían hecho uso de las copias privadas- y han obligado a regular un nuevo sistema a tal efecto.

Así pues, con el Real Decreto-ley 12/2017:

  • Se sustituye el actual modelo de compensación equitativa financiado con cargo a los presupuestos generales del Estado por un modelo basado en el pago de un importe a satisfacer, como sujetos deudores, por los fabricantes en España de equipos, aparatos y soportes materiales de reproducción, en tanto actúen como distribuidores comerciales, así como los adquirientes de los mismos fuera del territorio español para su distribución comercial o utilización dentro de este.
  • Los sujetos acreedores de la compensación equitativa serán los autores de libros o publicaciones asimiladas, fonogramas y videogramas, conjuntamente con los editores, los productores de fonogramas y videogramas y los artistas intérpretes o ejecutantes cuyas actuaciones hayan sido fijadas en dichos fonogramas y videogramas.
  • Se introduce en la regulación de la compensación equitativa un sistema de exceptuación y reembolso adaptado a la jurisprudencia del TJUE, regulándose, por un lado, los supuestos exceptuados ex ante del pago de la compensación y, por el otro, como complemento a ello, previéndose un sistema de reembolso ex post aplicable a aquellos casos no exceptuados en los que el consumidor final, habiendo abonado la compensación equitativa, justifique el derecho de reembolso por estar incurso en causa de exoneración.

De este modo, quedan exceptuadas, ex ante, del pago, las adquisiciones de equipos, aparatos y soportes materiales de reproducción realizadas por:

  • Las entidades que integran el sector público;
  • Las personas jurídicas o físicas que actúen como consumidores finales, que justifiquen el destino exclusivamente profesional de los equipos, aparatos o soportes;
  • Quienes cuenten con la preceptiva autorización para llevar a efecto la correspondiente reproducción de obras; y
  • Personas físicas para uso privado fuera del territorio español en régimen de viajeros.

Asimismo, aquellas personas jurídicas o físicas no exceptuadas del pago de la compensación podrán solicitar el reembolso ex post de esta cuando, habiéndola abonado, justifiquen el derecho de reembolso por estar incursos en causa de exoneración o por destinar los equipos, aparatos o soportes materiales de reproducción adquiridos a la exportación o entrega intercomunitaria.

  • La compensación equitativa se hará efectiva a través de las entidades de gestión de derechos de propiedad intelectual conforme al procedimiento que se determine a tal efecto, que, para ello, constituirán una persona jurídica que las representará a todas.

Este Real Decreto-ley entrará en vigor el próximo 1 de agosto de 2017, y en el plazo máximo de un año desde esta fecha deberá aprobarse un Real Decreto que lo desarrolle reglamentariamente y que determine por primera vez, con carácter no transitorio, los equipos, aparatos y soportes materiales sujetos al pago de la compensación equitativa, las cantidades que los deudores deberán abonar por este concepto a los acreedores, y la distribución de dicha compensación entre las distintas modalidades de reproducción.

Desde la entrada en vigor de este Real Decreto-ley hasta la aprobación del Real Decreto que lo desarrolle, se aplicará la solución transitoria que viene prevista en la norma, y que, entre otras cuestiones, enumera los equipos, aparatos y soportes obligados al pago de la compensación equitativa junto con las cantidades a abonar por cada uno de ellos.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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