Indonesia: Panduan Pendaftaran Merek di Indonesia

Last Updated: 18 July 2017
Article by Agus Candra Suratmaja and Hardi Nurcahyo

Pendaftaran merek sangat penting untuk dilakukan jika kita telah memiliki produk barang atau kita memiliki keterampilan di bidang jasa tertentu. Di Indonesia, pengaturan tentang perlindungan merek diatur di dalam Undang-Undang No. 20 Tahun 2016 tentang Merek dan Indikasi Geografis.

Untuk mendaftarkan suatu merek, hendaknya kita memiliki panduan yang benar. Didalam Pasal 20 dan Pasal 21 Undang-Undang Merek dijelaskan mengenai Merek yang tidak dapat di daftar dan di tolak di Indonesia, yaitu sebagai berikut :

Pasal 20 :

Merek tidak dapat didaftar jika :

a. Bertentangan dengan ideologi negara, peraturan perundang-undangan, moralitas, agama, kesusilaan, atau ketertiban umum.

Penjelasan :

"Bertentangan dengan ketertiban umum" adalah tidak sejalan dengan peraturan yang ada di dalam masyarakat yang sifatnya menyeluruh seperti menyinggung perasaan masyarakat atau golongan, menyinggung kesopanan atau etika umum masyarakat, dan menyinggung ketentraman masyarakat atau golongan.

b. Sama dengan, berkaitan dengan, atau hanya menyebut barang dan/atau jasa yang dimohonkan pendaftarannya.

Penjelasan :

Merek tersebut berkaitan atau hanya menyebutkan barang dari/atau jasa yang dimohonkan pendaftarannya.

Contoh : kita mendaftarkan merek kopi untuk jenis barang kopi atau mendaftarkan merek manis untuk jenis barang gula.

c. Memuat unsur yang dapat menyesatkan masyarakat tentang asal, kualitas, jenis, ukuran, macam, tujuan penggunaan barang dan/atau jasa yang dimohonkan pendaftarannya atau merupakan nama varietas tanaman yang dilindungi untuk barang dan/atau jasa yang sejenis.

Penjelasan :

Yang dimaksud dengan "memuat unsur yang dapat menyesatkan" misalnya Merek "Kecap No.1" tidak dapat didaftarkan karena menyesatkan masyarakat terkait dengan kualitas barang, Merek "netto 100 gram" tidak dapat didaftarkan karena menyesatkan masyarakat terkait dengan ukuran barang.

d. Memuat keterangan yang tidak sesuai dengan kualitas, manfaat, atau khasiat dari barang dan/atau jasa yang diproduksi.

Penjelasan :

Yang dimaksud dengan "memuat keterangan yang tidak sesuai dengan kualitas, manfaat, atau khasiat dari barang dan/atau jasa yang diproduksi" adalah mencantumkan keterangan yang tidak sesuai dengan kualitas, manfaat, khasiat, dan/atau risiko dari produk dimaksud. Contohnya: obat yang dapat menyembuhkan seribu satu penyakit, rokok yang aman bagi kesehatan.

e. Tidak memiliki daya pembeda.

Penjelasan :

Tanda dianggap tidak memiliki daya pembeda apabila tanda tersebut terlalu sederhana seperti satu tanda garis atau satu tanda titik, ataupun terlalu rumit sehingga tidak jelas.

f. Merupakan nama umum dan/atau lambang milik umum.

Yang dimaksud dengan "nama umum" atau "generik" antara lain Merek "rumah makan" untuk restoran, Merek "warung kopi" untuk kafe. Adapun "lambang milik umum" antara lain "lambang tengkorak" untuk barang berbahaya, lambang "tanda racun" untuk bahan kimia, "lambang sendok dan garpu" untuk jasa restoran.

Sedangkan berdasarkan Pasal 21 suatu merek yang akan didaftarkan akan ditolak jika :

1. Permohonan ditolak jika Merek tersebut mempunyai persamaan pada pokoknya atau keseluruhannya dengan :

Penjelasan :

Pasal 21 Ayat (1) Yang dimaksud dengan "persamaan pada pokoknya" adalah kemiripan yang disebabkan oleh adanya unsur yang dominan antara Merek yang satu dengan Merek yang lain sehingga menimbulkan kesan adanya persamaan, baik mengenai bentuk, cara penempatan, cara penulisan atau kombinasi antara unsur, maupun persamaan bunyi ucapan, yang terdapat dalam Merek tersebut.

Berdasarkan Yurisprudensi Mahkamah Agung RI No. 2279 PK/Pdt/1992 tanggal 6 Januari 1998 menyatakan bahwa merek yang mempunyai persamaan pada pokoknya maupun keseluruhan dapat dideskripsikan sebagai sama bentuk (similarity of form), sama komposisi (similarity of compotition), sama kombinasi (similarity of combination) dan sama unsur elemen (similarity of elements). [1]

a. Merek terdaftar milik pihak lain atau dimohonkan lebih dahulu oleh pihak lain untuk barang dan/atau jasa sejenis.

Penjelasan :

Yang dimaksud dengan "Merek yang dimohonkan lebih dahulu" adalah permohonan pendaftaran Merek yang sudah disetujui untuk didaftar.

b. Merek terkenal milik pihak lain untuk barang dari/atau jasa sejenis.

Penjelasan :

Penolakan Permohonan yang mempunyai persamaan pada pokoknya atau keseluruhan dengan Merek terkenal milik pihak lain untuk barang dan/atau jasa yang sejenis dilakukan dengan memperhatikan pengetahuan umum masyarakat mengenai Merek tersebut di bidang usaha yang bersangkutan.

Di samping itu, diperhatikan pula reputasi Merek tersebut yang diperoleh karena promosi yang gencar dan besar-besaran, investasi di beberapa negara di dunia yang dilakukan oleh pemiliknya, dan disertai bukti pendaftaran Merek dimaksud di beberapa negara.

Berdasarkan Yurisprudensi Mahkamah Agung RI Nomor 1486 K/pdt/1991 yang menyatakan bahwa : "Pengertian Merek terkenal yaitu, apabila suatu Merek telah beredar keluar dari batas-batas regional sampai batas-batas internasional, dimana telah beredar keluar negeri asalnya dan dibuktikan dengan adanya pendaftaran Merek yang bersangkutan di berbagai negara".

Pada prakteknya, pengertian di berbagai negara adalah pemilik merek harus memiliki merek di negara asalnya dan 4 sertifikat merek di negara lainnya.

Jika hal tersebut belum dianggap cukup, Pengadilan Niaga dapat memerintahkan lembaga yang bersifat mandiri untuk melakukan survei guna memperoleh kesimpulan mengenai terkenal atau tidaknya Merek yang menjadi dasar penolakan.

c. Merek terkenal milik pihak lain untuk barang dan/atau jasa tidak sejenis yang memenuhi persyaratan tertentu.

d. Indikasi Geografis terdaftar.

(2) Permohonan ditolak jika Merek tersebut:

a.Merupakan atau menyerupai nama atau singkatan nama orang terkenal, foto, atau nama badan hukum yang dimiliki orang lain, kecuali atas persetujuan tertulis dari yang berhak.

Penjelasan :

Yang dimaksud dengan "nama badan hukum" adalah nama badan hukum yang digunakan sebagai Merek dan terdaftar.

b. Merupakan tiruan atau menyerupai nama atau singkatan nama, bendera, lambang atau simbol atau emblem suatu negara, atau lembaga nasional maupun internasional, kecuali atas persetujuan tertulis dari pihak yang berwenang; atau

Penjelasan :

Yang dimaksud dengan "lembaga nasional" termasuk organisasi masyarakat atau organisasi sosial politik.

c. Merupakan tiruan atau menyerupai tanda atau cap atau stempel resmi yang digunakan oleh negara atau lembaga Pemerintah, kecuali atas persetujuan tertulis dari pihak yang berwenang.

(3) Permohonan ditolak jika diajukan oleh Pemohon yang beriktikad tidak baik.

Penjelasan :

Ayat (3) Yang dimaksud dengan "Pemohon yang beritikad tidak baik" adalah Pemohon yang patut diduga dalam mendaftarkan Mereknya memiliki niat untuk meniru, menjiplak, atau mengikuti Merek pihak lain demi kepentingan usahanya menimbulkan kondisi persaingan usaha tidak sehat, mengecoh, atau menyesatkan konsumen.

Contohnya Permohonan Merek berupa bentuk tulisan, lukisan, logo, atau susunan warna yang sama dengan Merek milik pihak lain atau Merek yang sudah dikenal masyarakat secara umum sejak bertahun-tahun, ditiru sedemikian rupa sehingga memiliki persamaan pada pokoknya atau keseluruhannya dengan Merek yang sudah dikenal tersebut. Dari contoh tersebut sudah terjadi iktikad tidak baik dari Pemohon karena setidak-tidaknya patut diketahui adanya unsur kesengajaan dalam meniru Merek yang sudah dikenal tersebut.

Oleh karena itu, Pasal 20 dan Pasal 21 ini hendaknya menjadi Panduan dalam upaya untuk mendaftarkan merek di Indonesia.

Sumber :

[1] Muhammad Dandi Pahusa, "Persamaan Unsur Pokok Pada Suatu Merek Terkenal (Analisis Putusan MA Nomor 162 k/pdt.sus-hki/2014)" Jurnal Cita Hukum, Vol. III, No. 1 Juni 2015, Fakultas Syariah dan Hukum UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta.

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