Vietnam: ドナルド・トランプ氏への手紙 環太平洋経済連携協定 – 絶好のチャンス

Last Updated: 23 February 2017
Article by Oliver Massmann

米国トランプ大統領

環太平洋経済連携協定(TPP)から離脱するという就任初日に出した声明に関して、TPP批准の可能性を再考して頂きたくお願い申し上げます。

TPPから離脱するということは即ち、米国は他のTPP諸国の政府調達へのアクセスを失うことになり、その額は1兆4,920億米ドルに上ります。TPPのように高い基準の政府調達規制は既存の国際協定にはどこにも見当たりません。その上、米国がTPPと同等の高い政府調達基準で二国間協定を締結するには、さらに10年を要する可能性があります。新たに交渉をする代わりにこのTPPを批准することで、米国は時間、労力そしてもちろん何十億米ドルを節約することができる為、非常に重要になるはずです。

以下の事実が今後の決断に役立ち、TPPがどのように米国を再び偉大な国にするのに役立つか明確に示してくれると我々は確信しています。興味をお持ちだと思うことは、米国が利益を得ることができるTPP加盟国の政府調達額が非常に高い点でしょう。

既にご存知のように、TPP諸国の人口は2015年7月時点で4億9,400万人を超えています。TPP諸国は2014年に米国の総輸出額の44.8%、また一般輸入額の37.6%を占めています。TPPに関する18,000品目以上の関税を削減することで、新しい市場に参入することが可能になれば米国の輸出入業者にとって大きなメリットになるでしょう。

米国の国際貿易委員会が推定したように、TPPにより米国の商品・サービスの世界への輸出は2032年までに272億米ドル増加し、米国の輸入は489億米ドル増加すると見込まれています。

次の表には各TPP諸国のデータが記載されており、米国の投資家が利用できる調達市場を示しています。

  GDP(米ドル) 政府調達のGDP のパーセンテージ(%) 政府調達の総額(米ドル)
オーストラリア 1兆5,600億 12.44 194,064,000,000
ブルネイ 114億7,000万 4.1 470,270,000
カナダ 1兆8,270億 13.34 243,721,800,000
チリ 1799億 2.9 5,217,100,000
マレーシア 3053億 25 76,325,000,000
メキシコ 1兆2,610億 5.16 65,067,600,000
ニュージーランド 1858億 14.56 27,052,480,000
ペルー 1926億 17.6 33,897,600,000
シンガポール 2741億 9.74 26,697,340,000
ベトナム 1714億 12.84 21,000,000,000 -22,000,000,000
日本 TPP批准済) 4兆9,200億 16.22 798,024,000,000

注釈、上記は2006 年~2017年の期間のデータです。

上記に示したように、TPP諸国の政府調達額は総額1兆4,920億米ドルにもなります!

またそれらは古い数字です。多くの国は経済成長が著しい国となっています。現在の総額はさらに高いでしょう。

米国はこの絶好の機会を逃すつもりですか?

TPPの大きな進展は、これまで政府調達に同意せず、また既存の米国自由貿易協定(FTA)やWTOの政府調達協定(GPA)に同意していないベトナム、マレーシア及びブルネイの3カ国でさえも同意すると約束したことでしょう。これは米国の商品生産者やサービス企業にとって重要な輸出機会となります。現在、中国企業が最も利益を上げています。ベトナムの国営企業の電力、鉱業、製造、鉄鋼そして化学プロジェクトの90%を中国企業が請け負っているのです。中国国家建設エンジニアリング社(CSCEC)は業績が芳しくなく、贈賄罪により世界銀行のブラックリストに載ってはいますが、それでも重要な契約を獲得し続けています。TPPにより市場が米国企業に対し開かれ、おそらく歓迎されるでしょう。

一部のアジア太平洋諸国及びその他の国々では、外国の入札者に不利益をもたらす政策を実施しています。TPPでは初めてベトナムやマレーシアなどの国がアメリカの協力を求めることが可能になります。政府調達に関する手続き及び法改正は米国の輸出業者に対し以前閉ざされていた市場への介入、そしてより効果的に競争することを可能にします。

その上、カナダはNAFTA(北米自由協定)の公約をTPPの基準まで引き上げることに同意しました。新たなGPAの水準は2014年度のWTOガイダンスに基づきNAFTAよりも強力な公約となっています。

米国は二国間協定が締結するまで待てないはずです!

最初にTPPの交渉が始まってから既に12年が経過しています。NAFTA(4年)、COMESA(16年)、そしてSAFTA(9年)などの国際条約が締結までに膨大な時間を要したように、二国間協定も同様に時間を要します。また成功するという保証などありません。実際はむしろ上手くいかないでしょう。マレーシア、ブルネイ及びベトナムのような国々は政府調達の規制に合意するという大きな措置をとりました。二国間協定がどのくらいの期間を要するかは、4年前に締結された欧州連合とベトナム自由貿易協定(EVFTA)に示された通りです。しかしながら、EVFTAは政府調達の規則に関するTPPの基準に達していません。公正で透明性が高く予想可能で被差別的な市場の創設を延期すべきではありません。GPAの水準がこれまで以上に高くなる可能性があるからです。これ以上良い協定を交渉する可能性は極めて低いですし、中国やロシアが米国に取って代わる可能性は非常に高いです。日本の安倍晋三首相は既に中国に中心が移る可能性があると述べています。しかし、中国に目を向けているのは日本だけではありません。オーストラリア、ニュージーランド、ベトナム、マレーシア、シンガポールそしてブルネイが既に中国とのFTAの交渉を進めています。

この協定を見送ることで米国は何十億もの経費がかかり、多くの労力を失うことになります。二国間協定の交渉は多大な時間及び費用がかかり、またTPPに近いGPA基準に達することは非常に難しいでしょう。

それでも米国は待つことができますか?

答えはNOのはずです!

敬具

オリバー・マスマン

*上記に関し更なる情報をご希望の場合は、直ぐにご提供致します。

Disclaimer: This Alert has been prepared and published for informational purposes only and is not offered, nor should be construed, as legal advice. For more information, please see the firm's full disclaimer.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Authors
 
Some comments from our readers…
“The articles are extremely timely and highly applicable”
“I often find critical information not available elsewhere”
“As in-house counsel, Mondaq’s service is of great value”

Mondaq Advice Centre (MACs)
Up-coming Events Search
Tools
Print
Font Size:
Translation
Channels
Mondaq on Twitter
 
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
 
Email Address
Company Name
Password
Confirm Password
Position
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Accounting
 Anti-trust
 Commercial
 Compliance
 Consumer
 Criminal
 Employment
 Energy
 Environment
 Family
 Finance
 Government
 Healthcare
 Immigration
 Insolvency
 Insurance
 International
 IP
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Litigation
 Media & IT
 Privacy
 Real Estate
 Strategy
 Tax
 Technology
 Transport
 Wealth Mgt
Regions
Africa
Asia
Asia Pacific
Australasia
Canada
Caribbean
Europe
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
U.K.
United States
Worldwide Updates
Check to state you have read and
agree to our Terms and Conditions

Terms & Conditions and Privacy Statement

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd and as a user you are granted a non-exclusive, revocable license to access the Website under its terms and conditions of use. Your use of the Website constitutes your agreement to the following terms and conditions of use. Mondaq Ltd may terminate your use of the Website if you are in breach of these terms and conditions or if Mondaq Ltd decides to terminate your license of use for whatever reason.

Use of www.mondaq.com

You may use the Website but are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the content and articles available (the Content). You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these terms & conditions or with the prior written consent of Mondaq Ltd. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information about Mondaq.com’s content, users or contributors in order to offer them any services or products which compete directly or indirectly with Mondaq Ltd’s services and products.

Disclaimer

Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the documents and related graphics published on this server for any purpose. All such documents and related graphics are provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers hereby disclaim all warranties and conditions with regard to this information, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. In no event shall Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information available from this server.

The documents and related graphics published on this server could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically added to the information herein. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers may make improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described herein at any time.

Registration

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including what sort of information you are interested in, for three primary purposes:

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, newsletter alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our information providers who provide information free for your use.

Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) do not sell or provide your details to third parties other than information providers. The reason we provide our information providers with this information is so that they can measure the response their articles are receiving and provide you with information about their products and services.

If you do not want us to provide your name and email address you may opt out by clicking here .

If you do not wish to receive any future announcements of products and services offered by Mondaq by clicking here .

Information Collection and Use

We require site users to register with Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to view the free information on the site. We also collect information from our users at several different points on the websites: this is so that we can customise the sites according to individual usage, provide 'session-aware' functionality, and ensure that content is acquired and developed appropriately. This gives us an overall picture of our user profiles, which in turn shows to our Editorial Contributors the type of person they are reaching by posting articles on Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) – meaning more free content for registered users.

We are only able to provide the material on the Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) site free to site visitors because we can pass on information about the pages that users are viewing and the personal information users provide to us (e.g. email addresses) to reputable contributing firms such as law firms who author those pages. We do not sell or rent information to anyone else other than the authors of those pages, who may change from time to time. Should you wish us not to disclose your details to any of these parties, please tick the box above or tick the box marked "Opt out of Registration Information Disclosure" on the Your Profile page. We and our author organisations may only contact you via email or other means if you allow us to do so. Users can opt out of contact when they register on the site, or send an email to unsubscribe@mondaq.com with “no disclosure” in the subject heading

Mondaq News Alerts

In order to receive Mondaq News Alerts, users have to complete a separate registration form. This is a personalised service where users choose regions and topics of interest and we send it only to those users who have requested it. Users can stop receiving these Alerts by going to the Mondaq News Alerts page and deselecting all interest areas. In the same way users can amend their personal preferences to add or remove subject areas.

Cookies

A cookie is a small text file written to a user’s hard drive that contains an identifying user number. The cookies do not contain any personal information about users. We use the cookie so users do not have to log in every time they use the service and the cookie will automatically expire if you do not visit the Mondaq website (or its affiliate sites) for 12 months. We also use the cookie to personalise a user's experience of the site (for example to show information specific to a user's region). As the Mondaq sites are fully personalised and cookies are essential to its core technology the site will function unpredictably with browsers that do not support cookies - or where cookies are disabled (in these circumstances we advise you to attempt to locate the information you require elsewhere on the web). However if you are concerned about the presence of a Mondaq cookie on your machine you can also choose to expire the cookie immediately (remove it) by selecting the 'Log Off' menu option as the last thing you do when you use the site.

Some of our business partners may use cookies on our site (for example, advertisers). However, we have no access to or control over these cookies and we are not aware of any at present that do so.

Log Files

We use IP addresses to analyse trends, administer the site, track movement, and gather broad demographic information for aggregate use. IP addresses are not linked to personally identifiable information.

Links

This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that Mondaq (or its affiliate sites) are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of these third party sites. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this Web site.

Surveys & Contests

From time-to-time our site requests information from users via surveys or contests. Participation in these surveys or contests is completely voluntary and the user therefore has a choice whether or not to disclose any information requested. Information requested may include contact information (such as name and delivery address), and demographic information (such as postcode, age level). Contact information will be used to notify the winners and award prizes. Survey information will be used for purposes of monitoring or improving the functionality of the site.

Mail-A-Friend

If a user elects to use our referral service for informing a friend about our site, we ask them for the friend’s name and email address. Mondaq stores this information and may contact the friend to invite them to register with Mondaq, but they will not be contacted more than once. The friend may contact Mondaq to request the removal of this information from our database.

Security

This website takes every reasonable precaution to protect our users’ information. When users submit sensitive information via the website, your information is protected using firewalls and other security technology. If you have any questions about the security at our website, you can send an email to webmaster@mondaq.com.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user’s personally identifiable information changes (such as postcode), or if a user no longer desires our service, we will endeavour to provide a way to correct, update or remove that user’s personal data provided to us. This can usually be done at the “Your Profile” page or by sending an email to EditorialAdvisor@mondaq.com.

Notification of Changes

If we decide to change our Terms & Conditions or Privacy Policy, we will post those changes on our site so our users are always aware of what information we collect, how we use it, and under what circumstances, if any, we disclose it. If at any point we decide to use personally identifiable information in a manner different from that stated at the time it was collected, we will notify users by way of an email. Users will have a choice as to whether or not we use their information in this different manner. We will use information in accordance with the privacy policy under which the information was collected.

How to contact Mondaq

You can contact us with comments or queries at enquiries@mondaq.com.

If for some reason you believe Mondaq Ltd. has not adhered to these principles, please notify us by e-mail at problems@mondaq.com and we will use commercially reasonable efforts to determine and correct the problem promptly.