Japan: 東南アジア知財アップデート: インドネシア改正特許法及び改正商標ૢ

Last Updated: 29 December 2016
Article by Masahiro Moriyama

東南アジア知財アップデート: インドネシア改正特許法及び改正商標法のポイント

昨年12月31日、「東南アジア諸国連合(ASEAN)」10ヶ国が域内の貿易自由化や市場統合等を通じて成長を目指す「ASEAN経済共同体(AEC)」が発足し、約6億人の人口を有する巨大な経済圏が誕生しました。その市場の大きさや、日本からの地理的近接性、親日的であること等の観点から、日本企業にとってのASEANの重要性は、今まで以上に高まっています。中でも、インドネシアは、ASEAN最大の約2.5億人の人口を有する市場であることから、日本企業にとって、最も関心の高い国の一つです。ところが、インドネシアの知財環境は、先進国並みに整備されているとは言い難いため、インドネシア政府は、「ASEAN知的財産協力作業部会(AWGIPC)」が策定した「ASEAN知的財産権行動計画」に沿って、マドリッドプロトコルその他の国際条約への加盟、知財関連法の明確化や規則・ガイドラインの制定等、知財環境の整備を急いでいます。その一環として、2016年8月26日には改正特許法が施行され、まもなく改正商標法も施行予定となっています。以下、インドネシアにおける上記2つの改正法のポイントをご紹介します。なお、改正商標法の最終的な条文は未公表です。

改正特許法】

年金納付:改正前特許法においては、年金の未納付と権利維持(権利取消)との関係について明確に定められていませんでした。近年では、インドネシア知的財産総局(DGIP)が、3年間未払いだった年金は、特許権者が支払うべき負債であるとの解釈に基づき、特許権者に対して未払い特許年金の支払督促状を送付する事案も散見されていました。そこで、今般、次のように改正されました(以下は、改正後の特許法の条文)。

特許法第126条(1); 「初回の年金納付は、特許証の発行日から6ヶ月以内に行わなければならない。」

特許法第126条(3); 「以降の年金納付は、翌年の保護期間内で出願日と同月同日である日の1ヶ月前までに行うものとする。」

特許法第128条(1); 「第126条に規定する年金を同条に定められた期間内に納付しない場合、特許は取消しを宣言される。」

特許法第136条; 「取消しを宣言された特許又は実施権の権利者には、特許料等の納付義務は適用しない。」

この改正によって、改正特許法の施行日(2016年8月26日)以降に年金納付期限を迎える特許に関しては、年金が未払いであれば、取消しが宣言され、年金の納付義務もなくなることになります。他方、2016年8月26日より前に年金納付期限を迎えた特許に関しては、旧法(改正前特許法)が適用されますので、理論的には上記のように督促状が送付される可能性が残ります。DGIPの今後の対応を、引き続き、注視する必要がありそうです。

迅速審査:審査遅延は、インドネシアの知財環境における大きな課題として挙げられ、その解決策の一つとして「ASEAN審査協力(ASPEC)」や「特許審査ハイウェイ(PPH)」の活用が議論されているところです。これに加えて、今回の改正特許法は、実体審査期間を、従来の36ヶ月から30ヶ月に短縮しました(特許法第57条)。この改正により、審査遅延という課題の解消が期待されます。

付与後異議申立:旧法では、出願公開時における情報提供制度は存在しましたが、異議申立制度は存在しませんでした。今般の改正では、付与後異議申立制度が導入されました(特許法第64条、第70条)。異議申立て期間は特許登録後9ヶ月以内とされ(同法第70条(2))、審判委員会によって審理されます(同法第64条(1))。

小特許の保護対象範囲拡大:小特許(日本の実用新案に相当)による保護対象は、これまで「製品又は装置」に限られていましたが、今般の改正で、保護対象に「方法」を含む旨が明記されました(特許法第3条(2))。

その他:医薬品に係る強制実施権の発動条件(特許法第93条)、職務発明規定(同法第12条)についても、若干の改正が行われました。今後は、具体的案 件に応じて、改正特許法の運用を注視する必要がある と思われます。

なお、改正特許法には、特許権者による特許実施義 務(特許法第 20 条)や第三者対抗要件に係るライセ ンス契約登録義務(特許法第 79 条)が定められてお り、これらの規定にも注意が必要です。特に、前者の特 許実施義務に関しては、「インドネシア国内への技術移 転義務」なる文言が含まれています。これらの規定に ついては、特許実施義務の解釈、違反時の罰則の有 無、TRIPS 協定との整合性等不透明な部分も多いた め、今後の運用を注視する必要があると思われます。

[改正商標法]

保護対象:商標法による保護対象が拡充され、いわ ゆる「非伝統的商標」(立体商標、音商標、ホログラム 商標)が保護対象に含まれるようになります。具体的に どのような商標の登録が認められるのか、今後の審査 実務が注目されます。

マドリッドプロトコル加盟に伴う国際商標登録:インドネ シアは、マドリッドプロトコルへの加盟を長年期待されて いたところ、今般、正式に加盟する方向です。マドリッド プロトコルの活用により、インドネシアへの商標登録出願 が容易になるだけでなく、同条約の規定(同条約第 5 条)に基づく、インドネシアでの審査の迅速化も期待さ れます。

出願公開:従前は公告制度のみでしたが、今般の 改正で出願公開制度が導入されます。これにより、第 三者の商標登録出願を早期に認知することも可能とな ります。

その他:商標侵害時の刑罰、権利移転、存続期間 の更新手続期間、等に関しても改正がなされました。

なお、著名商標の保護、特に著名商標と非類似の商 標登録出願(又は商標登録)に関する不登録事由(旧 商標法第 6 条(2))については、新たな政令が発表され ると推測されています。政令が発表されれば、いわゆる 冒認商標対策の一つとなる可能性もありますので、こち らの動向も注目されます。

以上に概観したように、インドネシアの知財制度は、日 本企業にとっても利用しやすいものとなりつつあるといえ ます。他方で、規則・ガイドラインの制定等が追いつい ていないなど、運用面での実効性や予測可能性の点 で未だ懸念があることも否定できません。引き続き関連 する立法動向や制度運用状況についてのアップデート な情報収集が重要といえるでしょう。(森山 正浩)

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