UK: Governance In The Labour Supply Chain

Last Updated: 28 December 2016
Article by ICSA  

Workers in the 'gig' economy present new employment law obligations for organisations

A gig economy is an environment in which temporary positions are common and organisations contract with independent workers for short-term engagements. The trend towards a gig economy is well under way.

In the summer, the ongoing Uber case was the first of, perhaps, many gig economy examples of workers taking a services company to employment tribunal over employment rights. With so many new technology services in the delivery, transport and other sectors using new business models it is perhaps no surprise that UK employment law for the individuals involved is uncertain.

Uber vs black cabs

In the Uber case, the workers were classified as self-employed drivers who use the app to connect with passengers. The passenger pays Uber through the app – with the fare calculated by Uber – and then Uber pays the driver. The driver's agreement with Uber is that each fare creates a direct business relationship between the driver and the passenger, but with specific obligations on drivers regarding their qualifications and the road worthiness state of their vehicle.

The same obligations on qualifications and vehicle state are no doubt prevalent within the black cab fraternity, however, drivers are free to pick up fares where and when they arise. To a certain extent, and subject to local authority approval, they are able to agree the fare with the passenger. In the majority of cases, they are paid in cash and recoup payment straight away.

Employment status

In the Uber case, the employment tribunal ruled on the status of the workers from an employment law perspective. As a result, in the UK, there is now an employment law concept of a 'worker' who is someone with less employment rights than an employee but more than a self-employed contractor.

As always in employment status cases, the degree of control exercised is a key element in determining the driver's employment tax status. Uber certainly exercises some control through the driver agreement over safety and quality of service to passengers, which is perhaps not controversial.

However, the drivers argued that Uber exercises a significant amount of control over their work by the way the app works, giving Uber control over the amount of work they get and therefore their earnings. There were also suggestions that penalties are applied for refusing jobs and that drivers are restricted to certain fixed routes.

Intermediary businesses

Clearly all businesses following an intermediary model will want to follow this case closely – but the final ruling may have wider impacts. If Uber wins, the Government may decide to revisit employment law in this area; with 15% of the UK workforce now categorised as self-employed there is likely to be public support for improving their rights.

Alternatively, a strong tribunal ruling in favour of the drivers may give many self-employed individuals rights as workers across a range of industries, not to mention HMRC potentially challenging Uber for failing to deduct PAYE and NIC correctly, and seek recovery on all payments made to its drivers.

Should employers be concerned? There is currently no statutory definition of employment and decisions on employment status are based on case law. They depend on the specific fact pattern underlying the engagement of the workers. So, if a company operates in the gig economy, this decision needs careful scrutiny as it is likely to affect workers.

Due diligence

On 7 November, HMRC relaunched and updated its due diligence advice to entities that use labour providers. It suggested that providers should undertake regular checks on their labour supply chain, including making sure staff are paid in line with the National Minimum Wage or National Living Wage, verifying the VAT registration of suppliers and reporting any concerns the company may have regarding potential compliance issues or exploitation of staff. It has also confirmed that employers can use a new online form to notify it of any staff outsourcing.

HMRC goes on to say that, as well as the risk of reputational damage, the end-user business could be liable to account for unpaid tax and NICs if the supplier failed to pay these. It gives some advice on how engagers can check the legitimacy of the supplier.

HMRC recommends that engagers should undertake the following:

  • Make sure the labour supply is commercially sustainable so it can meet statutory tax obligations and make a profit
  • Consider the history of the labour supply business – if a previous business failed because it did not pay its tax debts, what changed to stop this happening again?
  • Add a clause to contracts which requires labour suppliers to show evidence that VAT and PAYE returns have been filed timeously and that all the relevant payments have been made to HMRC
  • Ensure appropriate licences are held and are in order – for example, a Gangmaster Licensing Authority licence or a Security Industry Authority licence.

HMRC has always suggested that employers use its employment status indicator tool, which is due to be revamped again shortly, to establish whether someone should be paid on the payroll (as an employee) or not (self-employed).

Ambiguous labels

The Uber case is a reminder that the labels given to individuals are not determinative. Contracts should accurately reflect what happens in practice. It is also inappropriate to base opinions on what others are doing, since HMRC considers every case is different and needs to be considered accordingly.

Although it is anticipated that Uber will appeal the employment tribunal's decision on worker rights (and a final ruling may be years off), all employers that regularly use self-employed or supplied workers should keep a close watch how such services are commissioned, delivered and managed to ensure that they fully understand the legal obligations that they may create.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Authors
 
In association with
Related Video
Up-coming Events Search
Tools
Print
Font Size:
Translation
Channels
Mondaq on Twitter
 
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
 
Email Address
Company Name
Password
Confirm Password
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Accounting
 Anti-trust
 Commercial
 Compliance
 Consumer
 Criminal
 Employment
 Energy
 Environment
 Family
 Finance
 Government
 Healthcare
 Immigration
 Insolvency
 Insurance
 International
 IP
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Litigation
 Media & IT
 Privacy
 Real Estate
 Strategy
 Tax
 Technology
 Transport
 Wealth Mgt
Regions
Africa
Asia
Asia Pacific
Australasia
Canada
Caribbean
Europe
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
U.K.
United States
Worldwide Updates
Check to state you have read and
agree to our Terms and Conditions

Terms & Conditions and Privacy Statement

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd and as a user you are granted a non-exclusive, revocable license to access the Website under its terms and conditions of use. Your use of the Website constitutes your agreement to the following terms and conditions of use. Mondaq Ltd may terminate your use of the Website if you are in breach of these terms and conditions or if Mondaq Ltd decides to terminate your license of use for whatever reason.

Use of www.mondaq.com

You may use the Website but are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the content and articles available (the Content). You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these terms & conditions or with the prior written consent of Mondaq Ltd. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information about Mondaq.com’s content, users or contributors in order to offer them any services or products which compete directly or indirectly with Mondaq Ltd’s services and products.

Disclaimer

Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the documents and related graphics published on this server for any purpose. All such documents and related graphics are provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers hereby disclaim all warranties and conditions with regard to this information, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. In no event shall Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information available from this server.

The documents and related graphics published on this server could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically added to the information herein. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers may make improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described herein at any time.

Registration

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including what sort of information you are interested in, for three primary purposes:

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, newsletter alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our information providers who provide information free for your use.

Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) do not sell or provide your details to third parties other than information providers. The reason we provide our information providers with this information is so that they can measure the response their articles are receiving and provide you with information about their products and services.

If you do not want us to provide your name and email address you may opt out by clicking here .

If you do not wish to receive any future announcements of products and services offered by Mondaq by clicking here .

Information Collection and Use

We require site users to register with Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to view the free information on the site. We also collect information from our users at several different points on the websites: this is so that we can customise the sites according to individual usage, provide 'session-aware' functionality, and ensure that content is acquired and developed appropriately. This gives us an overall picture of our user profiles, which in turn shows to our Editorial Contributors the type of person they are reaching by posting articles on Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) – meaning more free content for registered users.

We are only able to provide the material on the Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) site free to site visitors because we can pass on information about the pages that users are viewing and the personal information users provide to us (e.g. email addresses) to reputable contributing firms such as law firms who author those pages. We do not sell or rent information to anyone else other than the authors of those pages, who may change from time to time. Should you wish us not to disclose your details to any of these parties, please tick the box above or tick the box marked "Opt out of Registration Information Disclosure" on the Your Profile page. We and our author organisations may only contact you via email or other means if you allow us to do so. Users can opt out of contact when they register on the site, or send an email to unsubscribe@mondaq.com with “no disclosure” in the subject heading

Mondaq News Alerts

In order to receive Mondaq News Alerts, users have to complete a separate registration form. This is a personalised service where users choose regions and topics of interest and we send it only to those users who have requested it. Users can stop receiving these Alerts by going to the Mondaq News Alerts page and deselecting all interest areas. In the same way users can amend their personal preferences to add or remove subject areas.

Cookies

A cookie is a small text file written to a user’s hard drive that contains an identifying user number. The cookies do not contain any personal information about users. We use the cookie so users do not have to log in every time they use the service and the cookie will automatically expire if you do not visit the Mondaq website (or its affiliate sites) for 12 months. We also use the cookie to personalise a user's experience of the site (for example to show information specific to a user's region). As the Mondaq sites are fully personalised and cookies are essential to its core technology the site will function unpredictably with browsers that do not support cookies - or where cookies are disabled (in these circumstances we advise you to attempt to locate the information you require elsewhere on the web). However if you are concerned about the presence of a Mondaq cookie on your machine you can also choose to expire the cookie immediately (remove it) by selecting the 'Log Off' menu option as the last thing you do when you use the site.

Some of our business partners may use cookies on our site (for example, advertisers). However, we have no access to or control over these cookies and we are not aware of any at present that do so.

Log Files

We use IP addresses to analyse trends, administer the site, track movement, and gather broad demographic information for aggregate use. IP addresses are not linked to personally identifiable information.

Links

This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that Mondaq (or its affiliate sites) are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of these third party sites. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this Web site.

Surveys & Contests

From time-to-time our site requests information from users via surveys or contests. Participation in these surveys or contests is completely voluntary and the user therefore has a choice whether or not to disclose any information requested. Information requested may include contact information (such as name and delivery address), and demographic information (such as postcode, age level). Contact information will be used to notify the winners and award prizes. Survey information will be used for purposes of monitoring or improving the functionality of the site.

Mail-A-Friend

If a user elects to use our referral service for informing a friend about our site, we ask them for the friend’s name and email address. Mondaq stores this information and may contact the friend to invite them to register with Mondaq, but they will not be contacted more than once. The friend may contact Mondaq to request the removal of this information from our database.

Security

This website takes every reasonable precaution to protect our users’ information. When users submit sensitive information via the website, your information is protected using firewalls and other security technology. If you have any questions about the security at our website, you can send an email to webmaster@mondaq.com.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user’s personally identifiable information changes (such as postcode), or if a user no longer desires our service, we will endeavour to provide a way to correct, update or remove that user’s personal data provided to us. This can usually be done at the “Your Profile” page or by sending an email to EditorialAdvisor@mondaq.com.

Notification of Changes

If we decide to change our Terms & Conditions or Privacy Policy, we will post those changes on our site so our users are always aware of what information we collect, how we use it, and under what circumstances, if any, we disclose it. If at any point we decide to use personally identifiable information in a manner different from that stated at the time it was collected, we will notify users by way of an email. Users will have a choice as to whether or not we use their information in this different manner. We will use information in accordance with the privacy policy under which the information was collected.

How to contact Mondaq

You can contact us with comments or queries at enquiries@mondaq.com.

If for some reason you believe Mondaq Ltd. has not adhered to these principles, please notify us by e-mail at problems@mondaq.com and we will use commercially reasonable efforts to determine and correct the problem promptly.