Luxembourg: La digitalisation de la santé: une sinécure?

Last Updated: 21 October 2016
Article by Anne Desfossez

Most Read Contributor in Luxembourg, September 2019

Le secteur de la santé connait depuis quelques années une intensification des investissements dans les technologies de l'information et de la communication, ayant pour but d'améliorer l'efficacité et la qualité des prestations de soins. Tout comme nombre de pays dans le monde, le Luxembourg suit cette tendance et a lancé depuis 2006 un programme ambitieux de digitalisation de la santé : le plan d'actions eSanté national vise essentiellement à développer les échanges d'informations entre les différents acteurs de la prise en charge des patients (médecins de ville, hôpitaux, maisons de soins, laboratoires....) afin d'assurer une meilleure coordination et continuité des parcours de soins, ces derniers étant justement de plus en plus complexes et multidisciplinaires.

Si les bénéfices apportés par la numérisation de la santé sont indiscutables, l'histoire récente a montré néanmoins qu'il ne s'agit pas toujours d'un long fleuve tranquille.

Quels enseignements faut-il retenir pour que l'informatisation des systèmes de santé réalise son plein potentiel ?

Un premier écueil consiste à penser qu'il suffira d'informatiser les processus papier en place pour que l'efficacité des prestations de soins s'en trouve améliorée.

L'implémentation d'un système d'informations (SI) nécessite au contraire une importante préparation en amont. Il est notamment essentiel que les équipes cliniques, assistées éventuellement de qualiticiens, comprennent et modélisent l'ensemble de leur processus de travail afin que la technologie soit adaptée à leur besoins. Avant la mise en production, il sera important également de porter son attention sur les interfaces utilisateurs et sur l'organisation des informations. Une interface trop complexe et mal organisée, avec une multitude d'alertes, pourrait vite « noyer » et « fatiguer » les professionnels de la santé dans un océan de données, finalement inexploitables. C'est pourquoi il convient de réfléchir en amont aux informations nécessaires à chaque professionnel de la santé et de structurer les données en conséquence, en fonction des besoins spécifiques aux différents profils.

En parallèle, informatiser ses processus représente une formidable opportunité de continuer à revoir et optimiser les façons de travailler, afin d'identifier des gains de productivité. Il s'agit en fait d'une tâche à double sens : comprendre les processus de travail actuels pour adapter le design des systèmes d'information à ses besoins mais aussi améliorer ses processus de travail pour s'adapter aux systèmes d'information et gagner en efficacité.

Par ailleurs, l'implication des professionnels de la santé dès le début d'un projet d'informatisation est une des clés de son succès. Ces derniers permettront une compréhension approfondie des processus et logiques de prise de décisions cliniques : en ce sens, ils pourront aussi agir en tant que sponsors du projet auprès des prestataires de soins, afin d'expliquer en quoi l'informatisation et la digitalisation peuvent améliorer la prise en charge quotidienne des patients.

Il est aussi commun de perdre de vue qu'un projet de digitalisation n'est pas seulement un projet technologique mais aussi un projet humain. Ainsi l'accompagnement des futurs utilisateurs et la mise en place d'une structure de gouvernance représentent deux composantes primordiales d'un projet d'informatisation.

Les systèmes devant être utilisés par les personnes, il est essentiel de ne pas sous-estimer les investissements à réaliser dans les programmes de formation et de support des équipes cliniques en amont et pendant le go-live ainsi que les investissements à réaliser dans des programmes de gestion du changement. Les personnes adéquates (cliniciens, qualiticiens, gestionnaire de projet, informaticiens...) doivent conduire le projet, les principes décisionnels doivent être clairement définis et une communication bidirectionnelle entre le management et les équipes terrains doit être clairement structure.

En conclusion, la révolution numérique dans le secteur de la santé est bel et bien lancée : elle offre de grandes perspectives pour les professionnels de la santé et pour les patients. La feuille de route est longue et chargée de challenges que les prestataires de soins se devront de relever.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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