Chile: La "Convención de la Apostilla" ya ha entrado en vigor en Chile

Last Updated: 21 September 2016
Article by Ismael Berguecio

Luego de que Chile depositara el instrumento de Adhesión a la Convención de La Haya en Diciembre de 2015, la "Convención de la Apostilla" ya entró en vigor en en Chile el 30 de agosto de 2016, junto con la entrada en vigencia de Ley N° 20.711 que implementa la citada Convención y su Reglamento (Decreto Supremo N° 81 de 2015).

De acuerdo a esta Convención, los Estados Miembros eximen de legalización a los documentos públicos que deban ser presentados en sus territorios, exigiendo como única formalidad la emisión de un sello, denominado Apostilla.

En términos prácticos, consiste en poner sobre el documento un apostillado o anotación que certifica la autenticidad del documento público expedido en un país e invocado en otro. Así, se reconoce la eficacia jurídica de los documentos entre países miembros, eliminando de ésta forma las legalizaciones que se realizan ante el Consulado de Chile en los países miembros de la Convención y a su vez, permite prescindir del mismo trámite en Chile, ante el Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, cuando se reciben dichos documentos desde el extranjero.

En consecuencia, la adhesión a la Convención tiene como principales ventajas la mayor rapidez en la circulación de documentos públicos entre países miembros, la desburocratización del sistema de certificación de documentos públicos y la disminución de los costos, beneficiando en definitiva, el comercio internacional y las actuaciones de personas de otras jurisdicciones que tengan efectos jurídicos en Chile.

Permitirá que documentos públicos emitidos en Chile, sean más fácilmente reconocidos como tales en los países miembros de la Convención, siempre y cuando se encuentren debidamente apostillados por la Autoridad competente. Para el caso concreto, la facultad de "apostillar" documentos en Chile, recaerá en la Subsecretaria de Justicia y sus Secretarías Regionales (Seremis), y respecto de ciertos documentos específicos, en funcionarios del Ministerio de Educación, de Salud, de Relaciones Exteriores y en el Servicio de Registro Civil e Identificaciones.

Con la implementación de la "Apostilla", si una autoridad competente certifica el documento, ello será suficiente para acreditar su carácter de público de dicho documento, es decir, certifica que la firma o sello que muestra el documento fue emitido por un funcionario público en el ejercicio de sus funciones, sin que las autoridades del país receptor del documento puedan exigir otra prueba de autenticidad respecto de los mismos. No obstante, es necesario aclarar, que este trámite, al igual que la legalización, no certifica la validez del contenido del documento.

Los documentos públicos, son aquellos emitidos por una institución pública del Estado. A modo ejemplar, podemos mencionar algunos documentos que se podrán apostillar:
" Documentos Notariales, entre otros, poderes, constitución de sociedades y otras personas jurídicas, documentos privados con firmas certificadas, declaraciones juradas.

  • Exhortos internacionales.
  • Sentencias y Resoluciones de los Tribunales Ordinarios de Justicia.
  • Títulos Universitarios, en original o Copia Certificada.
  • Certificados de Salud.

Por último, los requisitos copulativos para la expedición de una Apostilla son:

  1. Que se trate de un documento emitido o autorizado en un Estado parte de la Convención;
  2. Que dicho documento vaya a ser utilizado en otro Estado parte de la Convención; y
  3. Que dicho documento tenga el carácter de público, de conformidad al artículo primero de la Convención.

Podrá solicitar la certificación de la Apostilla cualquier persona que tenga un documento público cuya autenticidad desee certificar. Su otorgamiento se realizará electrónicamente, a solicitud del portador, por las autoridades u órganos públicos y en la forma que se establece en el Reglamento. Su tramitación y registro se efectuará en forma centralizada y en línea, mediante el Sistema Electrónico Único de Apostillas.

La implementación del "Apostillado" significa un cambio importante en legalización de los documentos públicos otorgados en el extranjero y para aquello emitidos en Chile, que deben utilizarse en el extranjero, lo que, en sentido amplio, presenta más fortalezas que debilidades; de manera que favorece el intercambio comercial y multicultural entre los estados miembros, al eliminar las barreras que traban el tránsito de documentos.

For CHILE articles - always put the following before the disclaimer:

Clarke, Modet & Co - CHILE

Santiago de Chile
Huérfanos, 835, piso 10
Tel: +562 2433 6830
Email: info@clarkemodet.cl


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