Spain: Tengo una idea innovadora, ¿y ahora qué?

Last Updated: 8 August 2016
Article by Mario Orleans

Lo primero felicitarte y darte la enhorabuena, tener una idea merecedora de llevar el apellido innovadora es un primer logro. Al iniciar un nuevo proyecto con espíritu emprendedor, ya sea dentro de una actividad empresarial consolidada o una incipiente, es frecuente que surjan multitud de ideas y debemos cerciorarnos de que su linaje innovador es verdadero. El motivo es que las ideas por sí mismas no tienen valor, es la ejecución de la idea, su desarrollo, la forma de ejecución la que tiene valor económico y está condicionada a que tenga éxito en el mercado, aparte de que sea novedosa e ingeniosa. De no ser así no sería innovación1 y 2.

El valor de la realización de la idea está vinculado a que podamos demostrar que es nuestra, de nuestra propiedad, que es innovadora con viabilidad económica y que perdura en el tiempo. La Propiedad Industrial e intelectual (PII) se manifiesta aquí como una poderosa base para conseguirlo, apoyándonos en ella durante las etapas del ciclo de la innovación.

En el momento de "engendrar" la idea innovadora. La información de calidad, relevante, concreta y oportuna que nos aportan las diferentes búsquedas que podemos realizar en documentos de PII nos ayuda incluso a trazar el Plan de Negocio: Búsquedas sobre Invenciones, Diseños y Marcas para:

  1. Conocer el Estado del Arte sobre el campo tecnológico en el que se está innovando.
  2. Localizar posibles colaboradores, conocer a la competencia y saber lo que hacen.
  3. Ver si el proyecto de innovación pudiera lesionar algún derecho de un tercero.

La protección de los resultados obtenidos al desarrollar la idea innovadora, se logra sólo con la PII. Necesitaremos conocer las distintas modalidades de protección, cómo combinarlas y cómo aplicarlas, con la premisa de que se trata de Activos Intangibles y que la PII es una inversión y por tanto sujeta a obtener rentabilidad.

Rentabilidad conferida porque con el registro de la Marca, la Patente o el Diseño, se manifiesta que es de nuestra propiedad.

Previo a la solicitud de registro, tenderemos que ver si cumplimos con los requisitos necesarios de las distintas figuras de protección (novedad, altura inventiva, singularidad, fuerza distintiva,... -es importante adquirir unos conocimientos básicos sobre PI o bien contar con asesoramiento experto-) y diseñar una estrategia de registro acorde con el Plan de Negocio. Uno de los principios que rige la propiedad Industrial es el de territorialidad: Se obtiene protección en el Estado donde se logra el registro. Hay que tener claro, o al menos una idea bastante aproximada de los países donde vamos a operar y registrar en consecuencia.

La Propiedad Industrial es una fuente de información secundaria, desde el punto de vista de investigación de mercados, determinante al comercializar o explotar nuestra "idea innovadora" (su desarrollo). Existen bases de datos (BBDD) abiertas de las distintas Oficinas Oficiales de Propiedad Industrial, de buscadores en Internet, así como BBDD privadas y sus correspondientes herramientas y aplicaciones. Éstas permiten generar desde estadísticas descriptivas, a mapas geoestratégicos que nos orienten en la búsqueda de mercados demandantes de nuestro producto o servicio innovador y en la localización de perfiles de empresas o inversores interesados en adquirir la correspondiente licencia de uso (sobre la patentes, la Marca o el Diseño) o incluso comprar su titularidad.

Y por supuesto en el caso de que detectemos un uso indebido de nuestra innovación por alguien ajeno, habrá que ejercer los derechos que la Propiedad Industrial nos aporta mediante las acciones legales oportunas.

El conocimiento y uso adecuado de la Propiedad Industrial, de la información que nos aporta, de los derechos que nos otorga y del valor que adquiere y da al proyecto, marca la diferencia de que el desarrollo de la idea innovadora sea audaz o se convierta en temeraria aventura plagada de errores.

Errores frecuentes como:

  • Pensar que la protección es mundial.
  • Confundir denominación social, marca y nombre comercial.
  • Creer que al registrar la Marca en una clase3, se tiene la exclusividad para todos los productos y servicios.
  • Convencimiento de que las legislaciones y procedimientos de registro y protección son los mismos en todos los países.
  • Desconocimiento o no uso de los sistemas regionales o internacionales de protección.
  • No comprobar si una marca está ya registrada o la utiliza la competencia. Infringir derechos.
  • Solicitud tardía del registro de Propiedad Industrial.
  • Divulgación precipitada (Patent Killer) o sin establecer acuerdos de confidencialidad o no divulgación.
  • Al subcontratar, no se determina de manera clara la titularidad de los derechos de Propiedad Industrial.
  • Emplear una marca inadecuada para un mercado por:
  • Marca con connotaciones negativas en el idioma o cultura local.
  • Imposibilidad de registro en la oficina nacional de PI.

Footnotes

1 Peter Drucker. Abogado y teórico estrategia empresarial (1909-2005).

2 Manual de Oslo de la OCDE y Eurostat.

3 Principio de especialidad: los Signos Distintivos (Marcas y Nombres Comerciales) a la hora de registrarlos ante las Oficinas de Marcas de los Estados y Oficinas Regionales e Internacionales (OMPI, EUIPO, OAPI, BOPI, ARIPO) se catalogan según el Arreglo de Niza (1957) que establece la Clasificación Internacional de Productos y Servicios (Clasificación de Niza). La protección se adquiere para el producto/servicio de la clase que se ha registrado. En la versión actual del 2016 de la décima edición, hay 45 clases (34 de productos y 11 de servicios).

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