Indonesia: The International Comparative Legal Guide To: Product Liability 2016 - Indonesia

Last Updated: 8 June 2016
Article by Agus Ahadi Deradjat and Herry N. Kurniawan

1 Liability Systems

1.1 What systems of product liability are available (i.e. liability in respect of damage to persons or property resulting from the supply of products found to be defective or faulty)? Is liability fault based, or strict, or both? Does contractual liability play any role? Can liability be imposed for breach of statutory obligations e.g. consumer fraud statutes?

In addition to general provisions under the Indonesian Civil Code ("ICC"), product liability is specifically regulated under Law No. 8 of 1999 concerning Consumer Protection ("Law 8"). Both instruments adopt a system of fault-based product liability. As regulated under Article 19 (5) of Law 8, a business actor (any person or entity doing business in Indonesia) is not liable for the losses incurred by a consumer for consuming its products/services if the business actor can prove that the consumer was at fault.

Contractual liability under the ICC also applies where a valid contract exists between the business actor and the consumer.

If a business actor violates his/her statutory obligations, he/she will be subject to both civil and criminal sanctions as stipulated under Law 8 and under other relevant laws and regulations.

1.2 Does the state operate any schemes of compensation for particular products?

No, it does not.

1.3 Who bears responsibility for the fault/defect? The manufacturer, the importer, the distributor, the "retail" supplier or all of these?

It depends on the circumstances of the case. Generally, the business actor is liable to pay compensation to the consumer for any losses incurred as a result of consuming the goods/services produced or traded. Law 8 stipulates the following provisions:

  1. The manufacturer is responsible for the products it has manufactured.
  2. An advertising business agent is responsible for the advertisements produced and also for all consequences incurred by such advertisements.
  3. An importer of goods is responsible (as if it is the manufacturer) for the goods imported if the importation is not conducted by an overseas agent or representative of the manufacturer.
  4. An importer of services is responsible (as if it is the provider of foreign services) if the said provision of foreign services is not conducted by an agent or representative of the provider of foreign services.
  5. A business actor selling goods and/or services to another business actor must answer a claim for compensation and/or a lawsuit filed by a consumer if:

    1. the other business actors sell said goods and/or services without any modifications to the said goods and/or services; or
    2. the other business actors are unaware during the transaction that a change has been made to the goods and/ or services by the first business actor or the goods and/or services do not conform to the specification, the quality and composition.
  6. The business actor is obligated to provide spare parts and/ or after-sales services, fulfil the warranty in accordance with what is agreed upon, and must answer claims for compensation and/or lawsuits from a consumer if the said business actor:

    1. fails or neglects to provide spare parts and/or repair facilities; or
    2. fails to fulfil the warranty.

1.4 In what circumstances is there an obligation to recall products, and in what way may a claim for failure to recall be brought?

Article 8 of Law 8 stipulates that business actors are required to recall their products if they:

  • do not fulfil or conform to the required quality standard and the prevailing laws and regulations;
  • do not conform to the condition, warranty, superiority or efficacy as stated in the label or description of the said goods and/or services;
  • do not conform to a certain quality, level, composition, processing, style, mode or use as stated in the label or description of the said goods and/or services;
  • do not conform to the promise stated in the label, description, advertisement or sales promotion of said goods and/or services;
  • do not comply with the provision to produce the goods according to halal methods, as denoted by the "halal" mark put in the label;
  • do not have a label or provide an explanation of the goods including the name of the goods, the size, the net weight/volume, the composition, the direction of use, the manufacturing date, the side effects, the name and the address of the business agent and other information which must be included in the label;
  • do not mention the information and/or direction of use of the goods in the Indonesian language pursuant to the prevailing laws; or
  • are goods for trade which are damaged, flawed or used, and contaminated without providing full information about such goods.

Further, it is also regulated under the Minister of Trade Regulation that a product can be recalled from distribution if it is proven to endanger the safety and health of the consumer, or the environment.

Law 8 does not expressly stipulate the specific procedure to be taken to file a claim for failure to recall such goods and/or services. However, failure to comply with Article 8 may result in imprisonment for a maximum of five years or a maximum fine of Rp 2 billion. As such, criminal procedures apply for breach of Article 8 of Law 8.

1.5 Do criminal sanctions apply to the supply of defective products?

Yes, they do.

2 Causation

2.1 Who has the burden of proving fault/defect and damage?

Pursuant to Article 28 of Law 8, the business actor must prove that there is no fault or negligence in relation to the damage.

2.2 What test is applied for proof of causation? Is it enough for the claimant to show that the defendant wrongly exposed the claimant to an increased risk of a type of injury known to be associated with the product, even if it cannot be proved by the claimant that the injury would not have arisen without such exposure? Is it necessary to prove that the product to which the claimant was exposed has actually malfunctioned and caused injury, or is it sufficient that all the products or the batch to which the claimant was exposed carry an increased, but unpredictable, risk of malfunction?

The consumer must prove that the product was utilised in accordance with the product manual and that the damages suffered were caused by the use of the products. It is necessary to prove that the product to which the claimant was exposed has actually malfunctioned, but not necessary to prove that the malfunction caused injury.

2.3 What is the legal position if it cannot be established which of several possible producers manufactured the defective product? Does any form of market-share liability apply?

Market-share liability is not commonly applied in Indonesia. Generally, the business actor who makes the product available to customers (the ultimate manufacturer) will be held liable unless the business actor can prove that another party was negligent/at fault.

2.4 Does a failure to warn give rise to liability and, if so, in what circumstances? What information, advice and warnings are taken into account: only information provided directly to the injured party, or also information supplied to an intermediary in the chain of supply between the manufacturer and consumer? Does it make any difference to the answer if the product can only be obtained through the intermediary who owes a separate obligation to assess the suitability of the product for the particular consumer, e.g. a surgeon using a temporary or permanent medical device, a doctor prescribing a medicine or a pharmacist recommending a medicine? Is there any principle of "learned intermediary" under your law pursuant to which the supply of information to the learned intermediary discharges the duty owed by the manufacturer to the ultimate consumer to make available appropriate product information?

There is no single regulation regarding the requirement to put warnings on labels. Article 7 of Law 8 simply stipulates that business actors must provide correct, clear, and honest information as to the condition of the goods/services and the direction for the use, repair, and maintenance of the goods/services.

Warning requirements are regulated specifically pursuant to the kind of goods to be traded. Commonly, warnings are required for goods which might be dangerous to the consumer, such as food products, drugs, technology products and cigarettes. The warning is usually required to be put on the label of the goods in such a position so that the consumer is able to read it carefully. Failure to comply with this requirement may cause the business actors to be liable for damages/ losses caused to the consumer from using the goods.

The term of "learned intermediary" is not adopted under Law 8. In this regard, unless the intermediary makes changes or additions to the goods/services, the manufacturer is liable for any damages arising from the use of the goods/services.

3 Defences and Estoppel

3.1 What defences, if any, are available?

The ICC provides a defence for strict contractual liability. A party cannot be held liable for unforeseeable harm or foreseeable harm if it has taken all reasonable care. Further, no liability arises in the event of a force majeure event which prevents the contracted party from carrying out its contractual obligations, or forces a breach of contractual duty.

Law 8 provides the following defences for manufacturers of goods:

  • the business actor has not been negligent/is not at fault;
  • the goods were not intended to be distributed;
  • the flaw in the goods emerges later;
  • the flaw emerges as a result of compliance with provisions on the qualification of the goods;
  • the damage is caused by the negligence of the consumers; or
  • the claiming period of four years after the purchase of the goods, or the passage of the period agreed upon, has lapsed.

3.2 Is there a state of the art/development risk defence? Is there a defence if the fault/defect in the product was not discoverable given the state of scientific and technical knowledge at the time of supply? If there is such a defence, is it for the claimant to prove that the fault/defect was discoverable or is it for the manufacturer to prove that it was not?

There is no such defence stated in the regulations.

3.3 Is it a defence for the manufacturer to show that he complied with regulatory and/or statutory requirements relating to the development, manufacture, licensing, marketing and supply of the product?

Yes, this can be used as a defence for the manufacturer. However, the acceptance will be based on the judge's discretion.

3.4 Can claimants re-litigate issues of fault, defect or the capability of a product to cause a certain type of damage, provided they arise in separate proceedings brought by a different claimant, or does some form of issue estoppel prevent this?

Indonesia does not acknowledge the concept of issue estoppel as adopted in the common law system. As such, every disadvantaged consumer may file a claim against a business actor regardless of previous actions taken by other claimants.

3.5 Can defendants claim that the fault/defect was due to the actions of a third party and seek a contribution or indemnity towards any damages payable to the claimant, either in the same proceedings or in subsequent proceedings? If it is possible to bring subsequent proceedings is there a time limit on commencing such proceedings?

Yes. The defendant may seek contribution or indemnity from a third party on the basis of general civil law procedures. The defendants may also include the third party in the same proceedings under a procedure called vrijwaring, or they can submit a subsequent claim against the third party.

3.6 Can defendants allege that the claimant's actions caused or contributed towards the damage?

Yes. However, the defendants must prove the allegations.

4 Procedure

4.1 In the case of court proceedings is the trial by a judge or a jury?

Indonesia adopts the Civil Law system. As such, trials are conducted by a panel of judges.

4.2 Does the court have power to appoint technical specialists to sit with the judge and assess the evidence presented by the parties (i.e. expert assessors)?

No, the procedures do not recognise the concept of expert assessors.

However, the court or the parties (the plaintiff or the defendant) may summon an expert witness to state their opinion regarding the case based on their expertise.

4.3 Is there a specific group or class action procedure for multiple claims? If so, please outline this. Is the procedure 'opt-in' or 'opt-out'? Who can bring such claims e.g. individuals and/or groups? Are such claims commonly brought?

Yes. The basis for class action procedures is regulated under Article 46(1)(b)of Law 8 and Regulation of the Supreme Court No. 1 of 2002 regarding Procedures for Class Action Lawsuits ("Perma"). Pursuant to Law 8, a group of customers who have the same concern or interest may file a class action lawsuit against a business actor. Pursuant to the Perma, a claim may be filed via class action procedures if:

  1. the number of class members is so large that it is ineffective and inefficient to make a claim severally or jointly in one claim;
  2. there are common questions of fact or situation and common questions of law that are substantial, and there are typical claims among class representatives and their class members; and
  3. a class representative fairly and genuinely protects the interests of the class members being represented.

The formal requirements for a class action petition should follow the formal requirements of the applicable law of civil procedure, in addition to those requirements sets out under the Perma.

At the beginning of the hearing, the judge must examine and consider the requirements for a class action. If it is a valid class action claim, a notice is issued containing a description of the possible class members belonging to the class definition. The notice provides further details on how class members can opt-out of the class membership and the address to submit the opt-out. The party who has stated to opt-out of the class action will not be legally bound by any judgment of the class action concerned.

4.4 Can claims be brought by a representative body on behalf of a number of claimants e.g. by a consumer association?

Yes, this is regulated under Article 46(1) (c) of Law 8. Pursuant to Article 46(1)(c), a lawsuit may be filed by a non-governmental institution to protect consumers' interests if the non-governmental institution fulfils certain requirements. Namely: that the institution is a legal entity or a foundation; that the institution's articles of association clearly state that its purpose of establishment is to protect consumers; and that the institution conducts its activities in accordance with its articles of association.

4.5 How long does it normally take to get to trial?

The time for a lawsuit to get to trial varies depending on whether it is a civil or criminal case. The time for civil cases to get to trial is usually less than the time taken for criminal cases. This is because the steps required prior to commencing a civil action are simpler than the necessary investigative steps required in criminal cases.

Pursuant to the Decision of the Head of the Supreme Court of the Republic of Indonesia No. 026/KMA/SK/II/2012 regarding the Standard of Judicial Services ("Kepma"), the court should determine the date of a civil trial at least three working days after the receipt of the claim by the court. Aside from this, there is no exact timeline on how long after the receipt of the claim the trial should commence. However, the Kepma regulates that the procedures of the trial should be finished within six months as of the registration date of the lawsuit.

As for criminal cases, the timeline to get to trial, from the time the alleged crime was reported to police is necessarily longer in order to account for the proper investigation and inquiry which must occur prior to trial. However, the Kepma regulates that the procedures of the trial for criminal cases should be finished within:

  • six months from the date of registration of the indictment by the prosecutor (if the defendant is not arrested);
  • ten days before the end of a temporary detention period; or
  • a special period as regulated under the prevailing laws and regulations for specific cases.

4.6 Can the court try preliminary issues, the result of which determine whether the remainder of the trial should proceed? If it can, do such issues relate only to matters of law or can they relate to issues of fact as well, and if there is trial by jury, by whom are preliminary issues decided?

The Indonesian Civil Law system does not conduct a preliminary issues hearing for civil or criminal cases.

4.7 What appeal options are available?

The appeal options in the Indonesian court system are divided into: (i) Ordinary Legal Remedies; and (ii) Unordinary Legal Remedies, as follows:

Ordinary Legal Remedies:

  • Appeal to the District Court pursuant to the decision of the agency for the settlement of consumers' disputes (this appeal option is available to consumers who attempt to settle disputes outside of court via the agency for the settlement of consumers' disputes).
  • Verzet: Appeal for a Verstek ruling (shall be filed by defendants who appeal a court ruling which implied that the defendant was not present at the trial).
  • Appeal: Appeal to challenge a District Court ruling.
  • Cassation: Cassation is a legal remedy to challenge the ruling of a court of appeal. Cassation can only be submitted if the petitioner has been through the appeal process, unless stipulated otherwise by law.

Unordinary Legal Remedies:

  • Civil Review: Civil review can be filed to the Supreme Court against a ruling/decision of the Supreme Court which has become final and binding. The civil review can be filed as long as there is a novum (new evidence) related to the case which had not been discovered at the previous level of proceedings.

4.8 Does the court appoint experts to assist it in considering technical issues and, if not, may the parties present expert evidence? Are there any restrictions on the nature or extent of that evidence?

The court or the parties (the plaintiff or the defendant) might summon an expert witness to give their opinion regarding the case based on their expertise. The expert witness must not have a conflict of interest with the subject and/or object of the case.

4.9 Are factual or expert witnesses required to present themselves for pre-trial deposition and are witness statements/expert reports exchanged prior to trial?

Under the Indonesian civil law system, there is no concept of pretrial deposition. Witness statements/expert reports are exchanged during the trial and not before the trial.

4.10 What obligations to disclose documentary evidence arise either before court proceedings are commenced or as part of the pre-trial procedures?

As for civil cases, there is no obligation to disclose documentary evidence. In general, the evidence is disclosed by the plaintiff as an attachment to the claim. This evidence is further investigated during the proceedings. As for criminal cases, the evidence is investigated during the inquiry and the investigation phase. Later, this evidence is attached to the indictment by the prosecutor and is further verified during trial.

4.11 Are alternative methods of dispute resolution required to be pursued first or available as an alternative to litigation e.g. mediation, arbitration?

No; Article 45 (2) of Law 8 stipulates that the disputing parties may voluntarily choose the method of dispute resolution, either through the court or outside of the court. Arbitration and mediation methods are available as an alternative to litigation and, in addition to this, Law 8 also provides an alternative mechanism for product liability claims via an agency for the settlement of consumer disputes outside of the court.

4.12 In what factual circumstances can persons that are not domiciled in your jurisdiction, be brought within the jurisdiction of your courts either as a defendant or as a claimant?

In theory, whenever someone (either a citizen or foreigner) conducts an unlawful act on Indonesian territory, the Indonesian court has the jurisdiction to hear and decide the case. Claimants that are not domiciled in Indonesia can file a claim before an Indonesian court. Further, defendants that are not domiciled in Indonesia can be summoned to appear before an Indonesian court. However, in practice, it is difficult to enforce the court's decision if the defendant or claimant is not domiciled in Indonesia.

5 Time Limits

5.1 Are there any time limits on bringing or issuing proceedings?

Yes, there are.

5.2 If so, please explain what these are. Do they vary depending on whether the liability is fault based or strict? Does the age or condition of the claimant affect the calculation of any time limits and does the Court have a discretion to disapply time limits?

The time limits on bringing or issuing proceedings vary between criminal law and civil law.

In criminal law, as regulated under Article 78 Criminal Code:

  • for violations/crimes committed by means of printing tools, the expiration period is one year;
  • for crimes carrying a penalty of less than three years' imprisonment, the time limit is six years;
  • for crimes carrying a penalty of over three years' imprisonment, the time limit is 12 years; and
  • for crimes punishable by death or life imprisonment, the time limit is 18 years.

In civil law cases, pursuant to Article 1967 of the ICC, the time limit to submit a claim is 30 years counting from the date of the dispute. However, a shorter period may apply in specific types of civil litigation.

Aside from the above, please note Law 8 stipulates that a claim brought under Law 8 will only be valid for four years from the date of the purchase of such goods/services.

The age of the claimant will not affect the calculation of time limits.

5.3 To what extent, if at all, do issues of concealment or fraud affect the running of any time limit?

The issues of concealment or fraud do not affect the running of any time limit.

To continue reading this article, please click here

Previously published by Global Legal Group

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Some comments from our readers…
“The articles are extremely timely and highly applicable”
“I often find critical information not available elsewhere”
“As in-house counsel, Mondaq’s service is of great value”

Up-coming Events Search
Font Size:
Mondaq on Twitter
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
Email Address
Company Name
Confirm Password
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Media & IT
 Real Estate
 Wealth Mgt
Asia Pacific
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
United States
Worldwide Updates
Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including what sort of information you are interested in, for three primary purposes:
  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, newsletter alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our information providers who provide information free for your use.
  • Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) do not sell or provide your details to third parties other than information providers. The reason we provide our information providers with this information is so that they can measure the response their articles are receiving and provide you with information about their products and services.
    If you do not want us to provide your name and email address you may opt out by clicking here
    If you do not wish to receive any future announcements of products and services offered by Mondaq you may opt out by clicking here

    Terms & Conditions and Privacy Statement (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd and as a user you are granted a non-exclusive, revocable license to access the Website under its terms and conditions of use. Your use of the Website constitutes your agreement to the following terms and conditions of use. Mondaq Ltd may terminate your use of the Website if you are in breach of these terms and conditions or if Mondaq Ltd decides to terminate your license of use for whatever reason.

    Use of

    You may use the Website but are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the content and articles available (the Content). You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these terms & conditions or with the prior written consent of Mondaq Ltd. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information about’s content, users or contributors in order to offer them any services or products which compete directly or indirectly with Mondaq Ltd’s services and products.


    Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the documents and related graphics published on this server for any purpose. All such documents and related graphics are provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers hereby disclaim all warranties and conditions with regard to this information, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. In no event shall Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information available from this server.

    The documents and related graphics published on this server could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically added to the information herein. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers may make improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described herein at any time.


    Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including what sort of information you are interested in, for three primary purposes:

    • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting.
    • To enable features such as password reminder, newsletter alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
    • To produce demographic feedback for our information providers who provide information free for your use.

    Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) do not sell or provide your details to third parties other than information providers. The reason we provide our information providers with this information is so that they can measure the response their articles are receiving and provide you with information about their products and services.

    Information Collection and Use

    We require site users to register with Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to view the free information on the site. We also collect information from our users at several different points on the websites: this is so that we can customise the sites according to individual usage, provide 'session-aware' functionality, and ensure that content is acquired and developed appropriately. This gives us an overall picture of our user profiles, which in turn shows to our Editorial Contributors the type of person they are reaching by posting articles on Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) – meaning more free content for registered users.

    We are only able to provide the material on the Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) site free to site visitors because we can pass on information about the pages that users are viewing and the personal information users provide to us (e.g. email addresses) to reputable contributing firms such as law firms who author those pages. We do not sell or rent information to anyone else other than the authors of those pages, who may change from time to time. Should you wish us not to disclose your details to any of these parties, please tick the box above or tick the box marked "Opt out of Registration Information Disclosure" on the Your Profile page. We and our author organisations may only contact you via email or other means if you allow us to do so. Users can opt out of contact when they register on the site, or send an email to with “no disclosure” in the subject heading

    Mondaq News Alerts

    In order to receive Mondaq News Alerts, users have to complete a separate registration form. This is a personalised service where users choose regions and topics of interest and we send it only to those users who have requested it. Users can stop receiving these Alerts by going to the Mondaq News Alerts page and deselecting all interest areas. In the same way users can amend their personal preferences to add or remove subject areas.


    A cookie is a small text file written to a user’s hard drive that contains an identifying user number. The cookies do not contain any personal information about users. We use the cookie so users do not have to log in every time they use the service and the cookie will automatically expire if you do not visit the Mondaq website (or its affiliate sites) for 12 months. We also use the cookie to personalise a user's experience of the site (for example to show information specific to a user's region). As the Mondaq sites are fully personalised and cookies are essential to its core technology the site will function unpredictably with browsers that do not support cookies - or where cookies are disabled (in these circumstances we advise you to attempt to locate the information you require elsewhere on the web). However if you are concerned about the presence of a Mondaq cookie on your machine you can also choose to expire the cookie immediately (remove it) by selecting the 'Log Off' menu option as the last thing you do when you use the site.

    Some of our business partners may use cookies on our site (for example, advertisers). However, we have no access to or control over these cookies and we are not aware of any at present that do so.

    Log Files

    We use IP addresses to analyse trends, administer the site, track movement, and gather broad demographic information for aggregate use. IP addresses are not linked to personally identifiable information.


    This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that Mondaq (or its affiliate sites) are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of these third party sites. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this Web site.

    Surveys & Contests

    From time-to-time our site requests information from users via surveys or contests. Participation in these surveys or contests is completely voluntary and the user therefore has a choice whether or not to disclose any information requested. Information requested may include contact information (such as name and delivery address), and demographic information (such as postcode, age level). Contact information will be used to notify the winners and award prizes. Survey information will be used for purposes of monitoring or improving the functionality of the site.


    If a user elects to use our referral service for informing a friend about our site, we ask them for the friend’s name and email address. Mondaq stores this information and may contact the friend to invite them to register with Mondaq, but they will not be contacted more than once. The friend may contact Mondaq to request the removal of this information from our database.


    From time to time Mondaq may send you emails promoting Mondaq services including new services. You may opt out of receiving such emails by clicking below.

    *** If you do not wish to receive any future announcements of services offered by Mondaq you may opt out by clicking here .


    This website takes every reasonable precaution to protect our users’ information. When users submit sensitive information via the website, your information is protected using firewalls and other security technology. If you have any questions about the security at our website, you can send an email to

    Correcting/Updating Personal Information

    If a user’s personally identifiable information changes (such as postcode), or if a user no longer desires our service, we will endeavour to provide a way to correct, update or remove that user’s personal data provided to us. This can usually be done at the “Your Profile” page or by sending an email to

    Notification of Changes

    If we decide to change our Terms & Conditions or Privacy Policy, we will post those changes on our site so our users are always aware of what information we collect, how we use it, and under what circumstances, if any, we disclose it. If at any point we decide to use personally identifiable information in a manner different from that stated at the time it was collected, we will notify users by way of an email. Users will have a choice as to whether or not we use their information in this different manner. We will use information in accordance with the privacy policy under which the information was collected.

    How to contact Mondaq

    You can contact us with comments or queries at

    If for some reason you believe Mondaq Ltd. has not adhered to these principles, please notify us by e-mail at and we will use commercially reasonable efforts to determine and correct the problem promptly.

    By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions