United States: Tax Law Changes Under Tax Cuts And Jobs Act

On December 15th, the congressional conference committee charged with reaching a consensus on the competing versions of the Senate and House tax reform bills released its conference report containing the language of the final bill.  The final bill, titled Tax Cuts and Job Acts (TCJA), is expected to be approved by both chambers next week and signed into law by the end of the year.  The chart below highlights the key aspects of the final bill.

We will provide regular updates on the tax reform bill and anticipate providing live seminars on the topic starting in January, so please stay tuned.

Topic Current Law Final Bill
Rates[1] – Single 10% — $0 – $9,325
15% — $9,326 – $37,950
25% — $37,951 – $91,900
28% — $91,901 – $191,650
33% — $191,651 – $416,700
35% — $416,701 – $418,400
39.6% — over $418,400
10% — $0 – $9,525
12% — $9,526 – $38,700
22% — $38,701 – $82,500
24% — $82,501 – $157,500
32% — $157,501 – $200,000
35% — $200,001 – $500,000
37% — over $500,000
Rates – Married Filing Jointly & Surviving Spouses 10% — $0 – $18,650
15% — $18,651 – $75,900
25% — $75,901 – $153,100
28% — $153,101 – $233,350
33% — $233,351 – $416,700
35% — $416,701 – $470,700
39.6% — over $470,700
10% — $0 – $19,050
12% — $19,051 – $77,400
22% — $77,401 – $165,000
24% — $165,001 – $315,000
32% — $315,001 – $400,000
35% — $400,001 – $600,000
37% — over $600,000
Rates – Married Filing Separately 10% — $0 – $9,325
15% — $9,326 – $37,950
25% — $37,951 – $76,550
28% — $76,551 – $116,675
33% — $116,676 – $208,350
35% — $208,351 – $235,350
39.6% — over $235,350
10% — $0 – $9,525
12% — $9,526 – $38,700
22% — $38,701 – $82,500
24% — $82,501 – $157,500
32% — $157,501 – $200,000
35% — $200,001 – $300,000
37% — over $300,000
Rates – Heads of Households 10% — $0 – $13,350
15% — $13,351 – $50,800
25% — $50,801 – $131,200
28% — $131,201 – $212,500
33% — $212,501 – $416,700
35% — $416,701 – $444,500
39.6% — over $444,500
10% — $0 – $13,600
12% — $13,601 – $51,800
22% — $51,801 – $82,500
24% — $82,501 – $157,500
32% — $157,501 – $200,000
35% — $200,001 – $500,000
37% — over $500,000
Capital Gains By holding assets for one year or less, any capital gain will be considered short-term and will be taxed at ordinary income tax rates.  By holding assets for one year or more, any capital gain will be considered long-term and is taxed at rates up to 20% No significant change, except the brackets will be adjusted
Standard Deduction[2] Single & Married Filing Separately – $6,350
Married Filing Jointly & Surviving Spouse – $12,700
Heads of Households – $9,350
Single and Married Filing Separately – $12,000
Married Filing Jointly & Surviving Spouse – $24,000
Heads of Households – $18,000
Personal Exemption $4,050 per person in each household Eliminated
Child Tax Credit[3] $1,000 per child with modified adjusted gross income phase outs at $75,000 for single and heads of households filers; $55,000 for married filing separately; and $110,000 for married filing jointly.  The credit is refundable for certain filers. $2,000 per child with modified adjusted gross income phase outs at $200,000 for single, and heads of households, and married filing separately filers and $400,000 for married filing jointly.  Up to $1,400 is refundable for certain filers.
Medical Expense Deduction[4] Medical expenses deductible in excess of 10% of adjusted gross income. Medical expenses deductible in excess of 7.5% of adjusted gross income.
State and Local Tax Deduction Individuals may deduct state and local property, income, and/or sales tax in excess of the standard deduction. Deductions for state and local taxes will be capped at $5,000 for single filers and married filing separately and $10,000 per year for married filing jointly.  Any 2018 taxes that are pre-paid during the 2017 tax year will be credited toward the $10,000 limit beginning on January 1, 2018.
Mortgage Interest Deduction Individuals may deduct mortgage interest on purchases of up to $1,000,000 for the primary residence plus one additional home;  individuals may also deduct up to $100,000 of equity debt The mortgage interest deduction will be capped at purchases of $750,000 for mortgages taken out after December 15, 2017; deductions for equity debt will be eliminated.
Casualty Losses Individuals may deduct casualty losses (including fire, theft, and other property loss) in excess of 10% of adjusted gross income, plus $100 per casualty event. Casualty losses will be allowed as a deduction only to the extent the casualty event is attributable to a federally-declared disaster.
Miscellaneous Itemized Deductions Certain miscellaneous deductions (including unreimbursed business expenses, tax preparation fees, and other expenses) are permitted in excess of 2% of adjusted gross income. Eliminated
Moving Expense Deduction Taxpayers may deduct moving expenses when moving due to new employment that is located at least 50 miles further than the taxpayer's previous place of employment from the taxpayer's residence. Eliminated
Alimony Deduction Alimony payments are deductible by the payor as an above-the-line deduction. Eliminated for divorce instruments executed on or after January 1, 2019 or modified after such date if the modification expressly states that this rule applies.
Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT) – Exemptions[5] Single filers – $54,300
Married filing jointly – $84,500
Married filing separately – $42,250
Heads of Households – $54,300
Single filers – $70,300
Married filing jointly – $109,400
Married filing separately – $54,700
Heads of Households – $70,300
Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT) – Phase-Outs[6] Single filers – $120,700
Married filing jointly – $160,900
Married filing separately – $80,450
Heads of Households – $120,700
Single filers – $500,000
Married filing jointly – $1,000,000
Married filing separately – $500,000
Heads of Households – $500,000
Individual Mandate under the ACA Taxpayers who do not have required minimum health coverage are required to pay a penalty or claim a waiver or exemption. Eliminated

[1] Note – Rates are current as of January 1, 2018.  All rates will be adjusted for inflation for tax years beginning January 1, 2019.

[2] Note – Rates are current as of January 1, 2018.  All rates will be adjusted for inflation for tax years beginning January 1, 2019.

[3] Note – Rates are current as of January 1, 2018.  The refundable portion of the Child Tax Credit will be adjusted for inflation for tax years beginning January 1, 2019.

[4] Note – Medical expense deduction rules are retroactive to tax years beginning January 1, 2017.

[5] Note – Exemptions listed under current law are 2017 rates; 2018 rates will continue to be adjusted for inflation.

[6] Note – Phase-outs listed under current law are 2017 rates; 2018 rates will continue to be adjusted for inflation.

Topic Current Law Final Bill
Estate Tax $5.49 million per person lifetime gift/estate tax exemption.

Rate on contributions over exemption: 40%

Exemption Amount Doubled.
Gift Tax $5.49 million per person lifetime gift/estate tax exemption.

Rate on contributions over exemption: 40%

Exemption Amount Doubled.
Generation Skipping Tax $5.49 million per person GST tax exemption.

Rate on contributions over exemption: 40%

Exemption Amount Doubled.
Topic Current Law Final Bill
Corporate Tax Rates C Corporations pay tax at graduated rates with a maximum rate of 35% of taxable income. Under the TCJA, C corporations would pay a maximum rate of 21% on their taxable income.  There would be no graduated rates.
Alternative Minimum Tax ("AMT") The purpose of the AMT is to make sure that corporations pay a minimum amount of taxes. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, the corporate AMT will be repealed.
Dividends Received Deduction
The dividends received deduction allows corporations to deduct a portion of the dividends such corporation receives from other corporations in which it has an ownership stake.
The amount of the deduction depends on the receiving corporation's ownership in the payor corporation.  If the two corporations are in the same affiliated group, the deduction is 100%.  If the receiving corporation owns more than 20% of the payor corporation then the deduction is 80%.  If the receiving corporation owns less than 20% of the payor corporation then the deduction is 70%.
The TCJA would lower the 80% deduction to 65% and the 70% deduction to 50%.
Section 179 Expensing A taxpayer may elect under Section 179 to deduct up to $500,000 of the cost of qualifying property placed in service in the taxable year. This $500,000 is reduced by the amount by which the cost of qualifying property placed in service during the taxable year exceeds $2 million.  Qualifying property is generally depreciable tangible personal property that is purchased for use in active conduct of a trade or business. The TCJA would increase the amount that a taxpayer may expense under Section 179 to $1 million and the phrase out threshold to $2.5 million.  These amounts would be indexed for inflation for tax years beginning after 2018.
Increased Expensing In 2017, taxpayers are allowed to claim first year onus deprecation equal to 50% of the adjusted basis of property acquired and placed in service in 2017. The TCJA increases the first year depreciation deduction to 100% for property placed in service in 2018 through 2022 (with lower percentages in years 2023-2027).
Research and Experimentation Tax Credit The research and experimentation (R&D) tax credit is a business credit allowed to companies who incur research and development costs The TCJA preserves the R&D tax credit however amounts paid or incurred in tax years beginning after December 31, 2021 will have to be deducted over time as opposed to being expensed immediately.
Limitation on Interest Expense Deduction Corporations can generally deduct interest paid or accrued. The TCJA would as a general rule limit the amount of interest that can be deducted to 30% of adjusted taxable income with any excess being carried forward indefinitely.  Taxpayers with average annual gross receipts for the three taxable year periods ending with the prior taxable year that do not exceed $25 million are exempt from the limitations.
Modification of Net Operating Loss Deduction Under current law, a taxpayer may carry back net operating losses ("NOLs") for two years and carry them forward 20 years. The TCJA would limit the NOL deduction to 80% of taxable income for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017.  It also repeals the two-year carryback in certain situations.
Like Kind Exchanges A like kind exchange allows a taxpayer to exchange property for new property without incurring immediate tax liability.  Under current law, like-kind exchange treatment can apply to both personal and real property that is "held for the productive use in a trade or business or for investment." The TCJA limits like kind exchanges to those exchanges involving real property that is not held primarily for sale.
Topic Current Law Final Bill
Deduction for Qualified Business Income
Pass-through entities such as partnerships, limited liability companies and subchapter S corporations file an annual information return, but they do not pay federal income tax.  Rather, these entities generally "pass-through" any income, gains, losses, deductions, and credits to the constituent owners who report their share of these items on their returns. Taxes are then payable at the constituent owner's tax rate.
For taxpayers other than subchapter C corporations, the final bill generally allows for a deduction of up to 20% of qualified business income generated by pass-through trades or businesses.  The deduction is applied at the partner or shareholder level in the case of entities taxed as partnerships and subchapter S corporations, respectively.

The availability of the deduction is limited for owners of "specified service trades or businesses," which would generally be characterized as professional service firms such as law firms, accounting firms and consulting firms.   In such instances, the full deduction is only available to a partner or shareholder if such taxpayer's taxable income (computed without regard to the deduction) is less than $315,000 for joint filers or $157,500 for single filers (hereinafter referred to as the  "Threshold Amount"). Engineering and architecture firms are expressly excluded from the definition of a "specified service trade or business," and, therefore, the income generated from such firms that flow through to the owners thereof would not be subject to this deduction limitation.

Reasonable compensation and guaranteed payments are excluded from qualified business income.

For taxpayers with taxable income that exceeds the Threshold Amount, the deduction becomes limited to the lesser of (a) 20% of qualified business income, or (b) the greater of (i) 50% of "W-2 wages" with respect to a qualified trade or business or (ii) the sum of 25% of the "W-2 wages," plus 2.5% of the taxpayer's allocable share of the unadjusted basis of certain depreciable property acquired used in the business. "W-2 wages" are wages subject to federal withholding, elective deferrals and certain deferred compensation. In general, self-employment income would not be considered to be "W-2 wages."  Therefore, if "W-2 wages" are zero, then the deduction would be zero for taxpayers earning more than the Threshold Amount or limited to 2.5% of their allocable share of the basis of certain depreciable property.

However, for taxpayers in a specified service trade or business (professional firm), the deduction begins being phased out completely at the first dollar above the Threshold Amount and is completely eliminated once taxable income equals the Threshold Amount, plus $50,000 ($100,000 in the case of joint filers).

The deduction is available for publicly traded partnerships, including master limited partnerships.

Carried Interest In general, a carried interest (also known as a profits interest) issued to a taxpayer in exchange for services is not treated as a taxable event if certain conditions are met.  The IRS has provided guidance indicating that this treatment does not apply, however, if (a) the profits interest relates to a substantially and predictable stream of income from partnership assets; (b) within 2 years of receipt, the partner disposes of the profits interest; or (c) the profits interest is a limited partnership interest in a publicly traded partnership.  Further, upon the transfer of a profits interest, the transferor is generally entitled to long-term capital gains treatment if such interest is held for at least one year. The final bill provides for a three-year holding period in order to receive long-term capital gains treatment.  The three year holding period would apply notwithstanding the rules of Section 83 or an election in
effect under Section 83(b).
Topic Current Law Final Bill
Deductions for Charitable Contributions Individual taxpayers may deduct up to 50% of the taxpayer's contribution base for donations made to public charities. Individual taxpayers may deduct up to 60% of taxpayer's contribution base for cash contributions made to public charities.
Deductions for Amounts Paid for College Athletic Seating Rights Individuals may deduct up to 80% of amounts paid for the right to purchase tickets for seating at a college athletic event Eliminated
Executive Compensation Excise Tax [1] N/A Tax-exempt entity shall pay a 20% excise tax on compensation over $1,000,000 paid to its top 5 most highly compensated employees, including those employed by related organizations; this excise tax also applies to parachute payments.
Excise Tax on Investment Income of Private Colleges & Universities N/A A 1.4% tax is imposed on net investment income for certain institutions.
Unrelated Business Income Tax Many entities with more than one unrelated trade or business aggregate the lines of business to take advantage of net operating losses across multiple lines of business. For entities with for more than one unrelated trade or business, unrelated business taxable income, including for purposes of determining any net operating loss deductions, shall be computed separately with respect to each such trade or business; unrelated business taxable income is increased by the amount of certain fringe benefit expenses for which a deduction is disallowed
[1] Note – Compensation paid to licensed medical professionals, including veterinarians, is excluded from this rule.
Topic Current Law Final Bill
529 Accounts[1] Funds contributed to 529 accounts may grow tax-free for beneficiaries if used for qualified tuition and other higher education expenses. Up to $10,000 per year may also be used for students in grades K-12 for tuition expenses, books, curriculum, online educational materials, tutoring, dual enrollment at institutions of higher education, and educational therapies for students with disabilities. Qualified expenses apply to public, private, or religious schools.
Roth IRA Recharacterization Individuals are permitted to recharacterize Roth IRA contributions as traditional IRA contributions after a traditional to Roth conversion, within certain limits Eliminated
Entertainment Deductions Up to 50% of entertainment expenses may be deductible. Eliminated
Qualified Transportation Fringe Employers may deduct certain qualified transportation fringe benefits provided to employees. Eliminated
Qualified Moving Expense Reimbursement Employee moving expense reimbursements are deductible by the employer. Eliminated, except for members of the armed forces on active duty who move pursuant to military orders.
Meals Provided At Convenience of Employer Employers may deduct meals provided to employees at the employer's place of business and for the employer's convenience. Eliminated but does not go into effect until January 1, 2026.

[1] Note – Contributions to 529 plans are not deductible for federal income tax purposes.  However, the following states permit deductions on state income taxes for 529 contributions (subject to certain limitations and rules in each state): Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, D.C., West Virginia, Wisconsin

Establishment of "Participation Exemption System" for Taxation of Foreign Income
Topic     Current Law Final Bill
100% Dividends Received Deduction for 10% U.S.-Owned Foreign Corporations
Provides a new 100% deduction for the foreign-source portion of dividends received from certain 10% owned foreign corporations by U.S. corporations.
Special Rules Relating to Sales or Transfers of 10% U.S.-Owned Foreign Stock Amount realized by U.S. shareholder on sale foreign subsidiary stock is treated as dividend income to the extent of foreign earnings and profits; remainder of amount realized is normally capital gain. For purposes of determining the amount of a loss on the sale of certain foreign stock by a U.S. shareholder, such shareholder's basis in the foreign corporation stock is reduced by an amount equal to the portion of any dividend received with respect to the foreign stock that was not taxed in the U.S. as a result of the new 100% dividends received deduction described above.
Deemed Repatriation of Previously Deferred Foreign Income Foreign income generally not taxed until repatriated to the U.S., unless the anti-deferral rules of subpart F apply. – Modifies subpart F to provide for the inclusion of pre-effective date foreign earnings.
– A U.S. shareholder may deduct 71.4% of the foreign earnings and profits attributable to cash and 85.7% of the remainder of the foreign earnings and profits.
– The U.S. tax on the deemed repatriation may be paid in installments over eight (8) years.
Rules Related to Passive and Mobile Income
Deduction for Foreign-Derived Intangible Income ("FDII") and Global Intangible Low-Taxed Income ("GILTI")
– For a U.S. corporation, creates a new deduction equal to sum of 37.5% of its FDII plus 50% of its GILTI
– This new deduction reduces the effective U.S. tax rate on FDII to 13.125% and on GILTI to 10.5% for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026.
Foreign Tax Credit
Repeal Section 902 Indirect Foreign Tax Credit
In connection with the establishment of "participation exemption system", the Section 902 deemed-paid credit with respect to dividends received by a U.S. corporation that owns 10% or more of the voting stock of a foreign corporation is repealed.
Source of Income from Sales of Inventory Income from the sale of property is generally sourced to the place of sale, which is determined by where title to the property passes. Gains, profits, and income from the sale or exchange of inventory produced partly in, and partly outside, the U.S. is allocated and apportioned on the basis of the location of production with respect to the property, even if title passage occurred elsewhere.
Separate Foreign Tax Credit Limitation Basket for Foreign Branch Income  – – Foreign branch income is the business profits of a U.S. person that are attributable to one or more qualified business units.
– Foreign branch income to be allocated to a specific foreign tax credit basket.
Modification of Subpart F Provisions
Changes to Implement "Participation Exemption System"
– Repeal current taxation of previously excluded subpart F income from qualified investments.
– Repeal foreign base company oil related income as subpart F income.
– Amend the ownership attribution rules so that certain stock of a foreign corporation owned by a foreign person is attributed to a related U.S. person for purposes of determining whether the related U.S. person is a U.S. shareholder of the foreign corporation and, therefore, whether the foreign corporation is a "controlled foreign corporation".
– Expand the definition of U.S. shareholder to include any U.S. person who owns 10% or more of the total value of shares of all classes of stock of a foreign corporation.
– Eliminate the requirement that a corporation must be controlled for an uninterrupted 30-day period before subpart F inclusions apply.
– U.S. shareholder of any "controlled foreign corporation" must include in gross income for a taxable year its GILTI.
Prevention of Base Erosion
Base Erosion Minimum Tax  – – An applicable taxpayer is required to pay a tax equal to the base erosion minimum tax amount for the taxable year.
– The base erosion minimum tax amount is the excess of 10% of the modified taxable income of the taxpayer for the taxable year over an amount equal to the regular tax liability of the taxpayer reduced by the excess of an amount equal to the credits allowed under Chapter 1 over the general business credits for the taxable year allocable to the research credit, plus the portion of the applicable general business credits not in excess of 80% of the lesser of the amount of such credits or the base erosion minimum tax amount.
Limitations on Income Shifting Through Intangible Property Transfer
– Addresses recurring definitional and methodological issues that have arisen in controversies in transfers of intangible property for purposes of Section 367(d) and 482.
– Revises the definition of "intangible property" to include workforce in place, goodwill (both foreign and domestic), and going concern value.
– Clarifies the authority of the Treasury Secretary to specify the method to be used to determine the value of intangible property, both with respect to the outbound restructurings of U.S. operations and to intercompany price allocations.
Deduction Denied for "Disqualified Related Party Amount" Paid or Accrued to a Hybrid  – A "disqualified related party amount" is any interest or royalty paid or accrued to a related party to the extent that: (1) there is no corresponding inclusion to the related party under the tax law of the country of the related party, or (2) such related party is allowed a deduction with respect to such amount under the tax law of such country.
Topic Current Law Final Bill
Private Activity Bonds (PABs) Tax-exempt PABs can be issued to finance a number of private and public/private endeavors, including multifamily housing projects, single family housing loan programs, airports, water and sewer facilities, solid waste facilities, toll roads, certain manufacturing facilities and non-profit projects, including healthcare facilities, educational facilities and senior living facilities. The House bill eliminated PABs, but the TCJA conference report retains current law.
Advance Refunding of Governmental Bonds and 501(c)(3) Bonds Governmental bonds and 501(c)(3) bonds are eligible for one advance refunding, i.e., a refunding in which the refunded bond is not callable within 90 days of issuance of the refunding bond and an escrow is funded to pay debt service on the refunded bond until the call date. TCJA eliminates advance refundings.
Qualified Tax Credit Bonds Holders of qualified tax credit bonds receive a tax credit instead of interest. Tax credit bonds can be issued to finance renewable and clean energy projects (clean renewable energy bonds and qualified energy conservation bonds and educational facilities (qualified zone academy bonds and qualified school construction bonds). TCJA eliminates qualified tax credit bonds.
Historic Rehabilitation Tax Credit 20% credit for qualified rehabilitation expenditures with respect to certified historic structures and 10% credit for qualified rehabilitation expenditures for buildings built before 1936. TCJA retains the 20% credit, but provides for the credit to be taken over 5 years rather than when the project is placed in service, which is current law. TCJA eliminates the 10% credit.
New Markets Tax Credit (NMTC) 39% credit for qualified investments in low-income communities. $3.5 billion of NMTC allocation for each of 2018 and 2019. The House bill eliminated NMTCs, but the TCJA conference report retains current law.
Renewable Energy Production Tax Credit (PTC) Tax credit for the projection of electricity from renewable energy sources, such as wind, biomass and hydropower. Taxpayers may elect to take the 30% ITC discussed below in lieu of the PTC. The House bill eliminated the inflation adjustment for the credit, but the TCJA conference report retains current law.
Renewable Energy Investment Tax Credit (ITC) 10% credit for certain renewable energy property, but such percentage is adjusted to 30% for solar energy property prior to 2020, with a phase down of the percentage thereafter. The House bill eliminated the permanent 10% credit, but the TCJA conference report retains current law.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Similar Articles
Relevancy Powered by MondaqAI
Duane Morris LLP
McLane Middleton, Professional Association
In association with
Related Topics
Similar Articles
Relevancy Powered by MondaqAI
Duane Morris LLP
McLane Middleton, Professional Association
Related Articles
Related Video
Up-coming Events Search
Font Size:
Mondaq on Twitter
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
Email Address
Company Name
Confirm Password
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Media & IT
 Real Estate
 Wealth Mgt
Asia Pacific
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
United States
Worldwide Updates
Registration (you must scroll down to set your data preferences)

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including your content preferences, for three primary purposes (full details of Mondaq’s use of your personal data can be found in our Privacy and Cookies Notice):

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting to show content ("Content") relevant to your interests.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, news alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

Mondaq hopes that our registered users will support us in maintaining our free to view business model by consenting to our use of your personal data as described below.

Mondaq has a "free to view" business model. Our services are paid for by Contributors in exchange for Mondaq providing them with access to information about who accesses their content. Once personal data is transferred to our Contributors they become a data controller of this personal data. They use it to measure the response that their articles are receiving, as a form of market research. They may also use it to provide Mondaq users with information about their products and services.

Details of each Contributor to which your personal data will be transferred is clearly stated within the Content that you access. For full details of how this Contributor will use your personal data, you should review the Contributor’s own Privacy Notice.

Please indicate your preference below:

Yes, I am happy to support Mondaq in maintaining its free to view business model by agreeing to allow Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors whose Content I access
No, I do not want Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors

Also please let us know whether you are happy to receive communications promoting products and services offered by Mondaq:

Yes, I am happy to received promotional communications from Mondaq
No, please do not send me promotional communications from Mondaq
Terms & Conditions

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of www.mondaq.com

To Use Mondaq.com you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.


The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.


Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions